Federal Voting Legislation

Various federal laws passed over the years help protect Americans’ right to vote and make it easier for citizens to exercise that right:

  • The Civil Rights Acts provide some of the early federal statutory protections against discrimination in voting (42 U.S.C. 1971 & 1974). These protections originated in the Civil Rights Act of 1870, and were later amended by the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960 and 1964.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 – This law prohibits voting practices and procedures that discriminate based on race, color or membership in a language minority group. It also requires certain jurisdictions to provide election materials in languages other than English.
  • Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act of 1984 – This law generally requires polling places to be accessible to people with disabilities.
  • Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA) of 1986 – This law allows members of the U.S. Armed Forces and overseas voters to both register to vote and vote by mail.
  • National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) of 1993 – This law increases opportunities to register to vote and creates procedures for maintaining voter registration lists, making it easier for people to stay registered.
  • Help America Vote Act (HAVA) of 2002 – This law authorized federal funds for election administration and created the U.S. Election Assistance Commission. It also required states to adopt minimum standards on  voting systems, provisional ballots, voter information posters on election days, first time voters who register to vote by mail and statewide voter registration databases. The EAC helps states to comply with these requirements.
  • Military and Overseas Voting Empowerment (MOVE) Act of 2009 – This law amended the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act to improve access to voting by military and overseas voters. It required states to provide electronic access to various parts of the election process, mail absentee ballots to certain voters at least 45 days before an election, and develop a free access system to inform military and overseas voters about whether their voted ballots were received and counted.

Source: USA.gov

Reports & Articles

TitleAuthorSourceDateLink
The New Realities of Voting by Mail in 2016Bipartisan Policy CenterBipartisan Policy Center7/6/2016Link
Your 2016 Official Election Mail Communications PlanUSPSUSPS Postal Bulletin6/9/2016Link
On the Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP) Effectiveness of Activities and Utilization of Procedures2015 Annual Report to CongressFVAP.gov3/31/2016Link
Absentee and Early VotingNCSLncsl.org3/24/2016Link
Your 2016 Official Election Mail Communications PlanUSPSPostal Bulletin3/17/2016Link
All-Mail ElectionsNCSLncsl.org3/8/2016Link
EAC, FVAP Letter To USPS Flags Delivery Issues, Seeks Cooperation On Mailed BallotsChapin, DougElection Academy12/23/2015Link
Citing Concerns About USPS, Colorado SoS Urges Voters To Drop Off BallotsChapin, DougElection Academy10/28/2015Link
Election Mail OpportunitiesUSPS OIGMS-AR-15-0078/14/2015Link
The Health of State DemocraciesLauren Harmon, Charles Posner, Michele Jawando, and Matt DhaitiAmerican Progress Action7/1/2015Link
2014 Election Administration and Voting Survey Report (EACEAC6/30/2015Link
Who Makes Voting Convenient? Explaining the Adoption of Early and No-Excuse Absentee Voting in the American States
Biggers, Daniel R. and
Michael J. Hanmer
State Politics and Policy5/12/2015Link
Vote-By-Mail Rates More Than Double Since 2000Sean Greene and Kyle UeyamaPEW Charitable Trusts4/29/2015Link
America Goes to the Polls 2014Nonprofit Vote3/12/2015Link
2014 Survey of the Performance of American ElectionsStewart, Charles, IIIMIT2/5/2015Link
2014 Statutory Overview ReportU.S. Election Assistance CommissionEAC.gov1/1/2015Link
Mail Ballots in the United States: Policy Choice and Administrative ChallengesMann, Christopher B.8/11/2014Link
All-Mail Elections Quietly FlourishNCSLThe Canvas7/1/2014Link
Costs Drive Vote-by-Mail Legislation in CaliforniaPEWPEW3/19/2014Link
The American Voting Experience:
Report and Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on Election Administration
Presidential Commission on Election Administration1/1/2014Link
Losing Votes by MailStewart, Charles, IIILegislation and Public Policy8/1/2013Link
Administration of Absentee Ballot ProgramsBurden, Barry C. and Brian J. GainesReport prepared for the Presidential Commission on Election Administration7/15/2013Link
Political and Election Mail Sales
Audit Report
USPS OIGMS-AR-13-0086/19/2013Link
Our Broken Voting System and How to Repair ItElection Protection2/12/2013Link
Eliminating Saturday Postal Service Threatens Vote-by-Mail DemocracyNichols, JohnNation Magazine2/8/2013Link
Error and Fraud at Issue as Absentee Voting RisesLiptak, AdamNew York Times10/16/2012Link
Potential Financial Effect on the U.S. Postal Service of Increased Voting by MailGAOGAO-12-72R10/20/2011Link
A Threat Analysis on UOCAVA Voting SystemsRegenscheid, Andrew, and Hastings, NelsonU.S. Department of Commerce12/1/2008Link
States, Territories, and the District Are Taking a Range of Important Steps to Manage Their Varied Voting System EnvironmentsGAOGAO-08-8749/1/2008Link
Statement before the House Administration Elections SubcommitteeCommissioner Ruth Y. Goldway, Postal Regulatory CommissionPRC.gov10/16/2007Link
Absentee Voting and Voting by MailEACeac.gov10/1/2007Link
Expanding and improving opportunities to vote by mail or absenteehearing before the Subcommittee on Elections of the Committee on House Administration9/16/2007Link
Five Years Later: A Re-assessment of Oregon's Vote by Mail Electoral ProcessSouthwell, PriscillaUniversity Of Oregon1/1/2004Link
Election MailUSPSUSPSLink


Justin Levitt
Journal of Law and Politics
National
31 page(s)
4/23/2013

Abstract: This short piece is not intended as a blueprint for a comprehensive health regime. Instead, it offers the ready elaboration of a policy menu for reducing wait time (and, along the way, potentially addressing other longstanding concerns), structured through the lens of the queueing theory deployed successfully in other contexts. The theory brings structure to the decision process: rather than a morass of undifferentiated policy suggestions, policymakers can identify the most appropriate means to address each of the significant levers contributing to lines in their areas. Some combination of some of the elements below should be deployed in jurisdictions that have suffered excessive lines in the past, and should likely be adopted prophylactically in those that have not but may be at risk. A modern republic should be able to ensure that its constituent citizens are able to express their preferences for political leadership without standing for eleven hours.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day holiday; Electronic pollbooks; Internet voting; Paper ballots; Permanent absentee voting; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter education campaigns; Voter list maintenance; Voters with disabilities

Combine With: Wait times


Gineen Bresso Beach
U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
121 page(s)
12/1/2011

Abstract: The 2010 survey is the fourth sponsored by EAC and forms the basis for three reports: a federally mandated report on the impact of the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA), 42 U.S.C. §1973gg, a mandated report on the Uniformed and Overseas Citizen Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA), 42 U.S.C. §1973ff, and this comprehensive report summarizing findings across all areas of the survey.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Institutional arrangements; Military voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Optical scan voting machines; Overseas voters; Provisional ballots; Voter registration

Combine With: Public opinion


Thomas Wilkey
U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
74 page(s)
5/1/2011

Abstract: The United States Election Assistance Commission’s (EAC) 2010 biennial Election Administration and Voting Survey included a Statutory Overview survey. This survey gathered qualitative information on State definitions, laws, processes, and procedures relating to the administration of elections in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and four territories. The Statutory Overview was designed to help the EAC and its stakeholders better understand and analyze the quantitative data collected through the Election Administration and Voting Survey.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Internet voting; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Poll watchers; Poll worker training; Post-election audits; Provisional ballots; Voter ID; Voter list maintenance; Voters with felony convictions

Combine With: Turnout


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
29 page(s)
5/31/2013

Abstract: The ongoing process of improving America’s election systems relies in part on having accurate data about the way Americans cast their ballots. In 2002, Congress chartered the U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) to collect information on the state of American elections and make it widely available to policy makers, advocates, scholars, journalists and the general public. Since 2004, the Commission has sponsored a biennial survey as its primary tool for fulfilling that mission. We are pleased to present the 2012 Election Administration and Voting Survey.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Electronic pollbooks; Military voters; Optical scan voting machines; Overseas voters; Paper ballots; Permanent absentee voting; Poll worker recruitment; Polling place locations; Provisional ballots; Punch cards; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voters with felony convictions

Combine With: Public opinion; Turnout


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
12200 page(s)
6/1/2013

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Electronic pollbooks; Military voters; Optical scan voting machines; Overseas voters; Paper ballots; Permanent absentee voting; Poll worker recruitment; Polling place locations; Provisional ballots; Punch cards; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voters with felony convictions

Combine With: Public opinion; Turnout


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
121 page(s)
9/1/2013

Abstract: Detailed information on the 2012 Election Administration and Voting Survey is presented in this report. It contains summaries of the NVRA and UOCAVA reports and new information on the methods Americans used to vote and how State and local administrators ran their elections in 2012. Summary information at the State level is included in the tables which accompany the report.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Canvassing & election certification; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Election Day polling place voting; Electronic pollbooks; Military voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Optical scan voting machines; Overseas voters; Poll worker recruitment; Polling places; Provisional ballots; Vote counting & recounting; Voter demographics; Voter registration; Voting methods

Combine With: Errors; Public opinion


Curtis Gans
Center for the Study of the American Electorate, American University
National
7 page(s)
7/21/2014

Abstract: If the first 25 statewide primaries (for U.S. Senate and/or state governor) are any guide, the nation is likely to witness the lowest midterm primary turnout in history. It is also likely to witness the greatest number of states setting records for low voter turnout. Even the states with convenience voting options such as election day registration, all-mail voting, early in-person voting and no excuse absentee voting experience low turnout percentages.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election types; Electioneering & voter intimidation; Same day/Election Day registration; Top two primaries; Voter ID; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration

Combine With: Fraud; Turnout


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
80 page(s)
1/1/2015

Abstract: This document summarizes the findings from the United States Election Assistance Commission (EAC) sponsored Statutory Overview for 2014. The Statutory Overview gathers qualitative information on States’ definitions, laws, processes, and procedures relating to the administration of elections. The Statutory Overview is designed to help the EAC understand and analyze the quantitative data collected through the Election Administration and Voting Survey (EAVS).

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Electronic pollbooks; Evaluation & assessment; Military voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Poll watchers; Poll worker qualifications; Poll worker training; Polling place management; Polling places; Post-election audits; Proof of citizenship requirement; Provisional ballots; Vote counting & recounting; Voter ID; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voters with felony convictions; Voting methods; Voting technology


Michael McDonald
Huffington Post
National
2 page(s)
6/12/2013

Abstract: The percentage of voters who cast their ballot before Election Day modestly increased from 29.7 percent to 31.6 percent from 2008 to 2012, according to a Census Bureau survey.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day emergencies; Election Day polling place voting

Combine With: Turnout


Nathaniel Persily
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
17 page(s)
2013

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Bilingual & multilingual ballots; Election Day emergencies; Military voters; Voters with disabilities; Voters with limited-English proficiency


Steven Schwinn
Clearinghouse Review Journal of Poverty Law & Policy
National; Indiana
10 page(s)
8/16/2011

Abstract: The Supreme Court in Crawford v. Marion County Election Board rejected a facial challenge under the Equal Protection Clause to Indiana’s voter-ID law. But despite upholding the law, the Crawford opinions together set out a clear roadmap for challenging any “evenhanded restrictions” on the right to vote. This short piece examines that roadmap. I start by giving a bit of background on the Indiana law and describing the law’s operation. Next I mine two key opinions in Crawford for clues to a successful challenge of voter-ID laws. Finally, I argue that Crawford gives us three imperatives for successful challenges, and I offer some thoughts on each.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Low-income voters; Provisional ballots; Senior voters; Voter ID

Combine With: Costs; Fraud; Litigation


Voting System Testing and Certification Division, U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
149 page(s)
9/14/2011

Abstract: This report presents a broad review of the Internet voting systems used in elections from January 2000 through November 2011. The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) conducted this study to collect information to use as guidance in the development of electronic absentee voting guidelines. The knowledge gained from examining the system architectures, the standards for designing and/or testing these systems and how system risk was evaluated and managed provides valuable insight based on actual experience.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Certification & testing; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; International election administration; Internet voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Security; Voter demographics; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Errors


Charles Stewart III
Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Political Science Association; Political Science Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; The Pew Charitable Trusts
National
48 page(s)
3/26/2013

Abstract: Primarily using responses to the 2012 Survey of the Performance of American Elections (SPAE), this paper paints a portrait of election administration from the perspective of the experience of voters in the most recent presidential election. It examines both the experience on Election Day itself and attitudes about the election. Because of the design of the SPAE, it is possible to provide descriptions about the national electorate and the electorates of each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Because this is the second administration of essentially the identical instrument across two succeeding presidential elections, it is also possible to gain some insight into how the politics of election administration may have affected the experience of voters and the attitudes of citizens about elections. The high-level findings are these. First, the experience for the vast majority of voters in 2012 was positive, as it was in 2008. Second, requiring voters to show photo ID in order to vote remains popular, though less so than in 2008. Third, states varied by an order-of-magnitude (from top to bottom) in the amount of time citizens waited in line to vote — Vermont was the lowest (1.5 minutes, on average), Florida the highest (39 minutes). Minority voters and city-dwellers (especially city-dwellers who voted early) wait in lines the longest. Fourth, attitudes about possible election reforms have become more polarized around partisan lines than they were in 2008.

Subject(s): African-American voters; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Asian-American voters; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day holiday; Election Day polling place voting; Hispanic voters; Internet voting; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter ID; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Fraud; Public opinion; Turnout; Voter confidence; Wait times


Jan Leighley; Jonathan Nagler
Bush v. Gore, 10 Years Later: Election Administration in the United States
National
14 page(s)
4/7/2011

Abstract: In this paper we discuss the changes in electoral laws since 1972, and the effect some of those laws have had on turnout. We pay particular attention to the variation in absentee voting laws, and in particular the method of requesting the absentee ballot, across the states. We document the large increase in the availability of no-fault absentee voting since 1990. And we note that it often comes with a large price: the need to request a ballot each year. However, we find, surprisingly, that states that allow for permanent absentee ballot status do not neccesarily achieve larger turnout than states which adopt no-fault absentee balloting but do not offer permanent absentee status.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Permanent absentee voting

Combine With: Turnout


Claudia Rébola; Jon Sanford; Karen Milchus
Accessible Voting Technology Initiative, Information Technology & Innovation Foundation (ITIF)
National
24 page(s)
6/8/2012

Abstract: This report describes the process and outcomes of two design workshops on accessible voting held in early 2012 by the Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access (CATEA), a multidisciplinary research center at Georgia Tech devoted to enhancing the lives of people with all levels of ability and functional limitations through the development and application of assistive and universally designed technologies.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Ballot marking tools; Evaluation & assessment; Polling places; Voter education campaigns; Voters with disabilities; Voting technology


Charles Stewart III
Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy
National
5 page(s)
10/3/2011

Abstract: The purpose of this essay is to highlight some policy costs associated with moving to all-mail elections. This is not a comprehensive review, because the topic has rarely been treated systematically in the scholarly literature. My hopes are that policymakers will be cautious in extending voting by mail, by whatever means, and that the research community will account more comprehensively for the benefits and costs associated with mail-in ballots.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Polling places; Voting methods

Combine With: Costs; Public opinion


Barry Burden; Brian Gaines
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
15 page(s)
7/15/2013

Abstract: Because the U.S. Constitution grants states substantial latitude in how to conduct elections, a wide variety of practices have developed. This diversity is especially clear in regard to absentee voting. The rules governing absentee balloting have generally liberalized over time, contributing to rising usage in recent years, though not all states have followed this pattern. The purpose of this report is to review what is known about absentee voting, identify some key policy choices available to the states, and offer a few tentative recommendations.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Permanent absentee voting; Polling place accessibility; Voters with disabilities; Voting methods

Combine With: Costs; Errors; Turnout


Christopher Elmendorf; Douglas Spencer
School of Law, University of California-Davis
National
63 page(s)
3/23/2014

Abstract: This paper argues that the courts, in partnership with the Department of Justice, could reform Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act so that it fills much of the gap left by the Supreme Court’s evisceration of Section 5. The key is to establish rebuttable presumptions that cover the recurring, difficult-to-resolve factual questions in Section 2 cases, and to craft the presumptions so that their application in any given case can be determined using national survey data and off-the-shelf statistical models, rather than vote tallies from local elections and other case-specific data. We propose a set of evidentiary presumptions that meet these criteria; we address the courts’ and DOJ’s legal and practical authority to establish the presumptions; and we show how our presumptions can be implemented using multilevel regression and poststratification (MRP) and extant datasets.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Voter demographics; Voter ID; Voter registration

Combine With: Costs; Disenfranchisement; Litigation; Turnout


John Ahlquist; Kenneth Mayer; Simon Jackman
University of Wisconsin
National
35 page(s)
10/30/2013

Abstract: We report the results of a survey list experiment fielded immediately after the 2012 US general election designed to measure the prevalence of one specific type of voter fraud most relevant to voter ID laws: voter impersonation. We find no evidence of voter impersonation, even in the states most contested in the Presidential campaign. We also find that states with strict voter ID laws and states with same-day voter registration are no different from others in the (non) existence of voter impersonation. To address possible “lower bound” problems with our conclusions we run both parallel and subsequent experiments to calibrate our findings. These ancillary list experiments indicate that the lower bound on the population reporting voter impersonation is nearly identical with the proportion of the population reporting abduction by extraterrestrials. Based on this evidence, strict voter ID requirements address a problem that did not exist in the 2012 US election. Effort designed to improve American election infrastructure and security would be better directed toward other initiatives.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Asian-American voters; Hispanic voters; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter ID; Voter registration; Women voters

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Errors; Fraud


George Pillsbury; Julian Johannesen
NonProfit VOTE
National
25 page(s)
3/11/2013

Abstract: America Goes to the Polls 2012 profiles voter turnout in the 2012 presidential election using official voter turnout data reported by the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report ranks voter turnout by state and notes the relative change in turnout for each state compared to the last presidential election. Beyond the rankings, America Goes to the Polls documents the impact of factors like Election Day registration and “swing” or “battleground” status on voter turnout. It uses the most cited and reliable post-election analysis to report on key voting trends. Finally, the report concludes with a discussion of reforms that lead to greater voter participation and improve the voting experience for all voters, both new and old. These reforms include modernizing our voter registration system, expanding early voting, and others.

Subject(s): African-American voters; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Hispanic voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Online voter registration; Preregistration for teens; Same day/Election Day registration; Voters with felony convictions; Youth voters

Combine With: Turnout


NonProfit VOTE
National
27 page(s)
3/1/2015

Abstract: This report looks at voter turnout in 2014 U.S. elections, find that on the heels of a drop in voter turnout in the 2012 presidential election, turnout in the 2014 midterm was the lowest since World War II. Just 37% of eligible voters cast ballots, down five points from the 42% of eligible voters who voted in 2010. However, turnout among states varied widely. States with competitive races and Election Day Registration out-performed others by wide margins.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Voting methods

Combine With: Turnout


Hans von Spakovsky; M. Eric Eversole
The Heritage Foundation
National
10 page(s)
3/9/2010

Abstract: For many Americans, the 2008 presidential election was historic, both in its outcome and the number of citizens who voted, many for the first time. The overall turnout of the voting-eligible population was 61.7 percent, the highest turnout since the 1964 presidential election.1 Local election officials in many states reported high levels of voting by many individuals who have not traditionally participated in the election process. The same, however, cannot be said for America’s military members and their voting-age dependents (“military voters”). For these voters, especially those serving in dangerous combat zones like Iraq and Afghanistan, the 2008 presidential election was an embarrassing reminder of the difficulties faced by America’s men and women in uniform when they attempt to vote.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Military voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Voter registration

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Turnout


Howard Steven Friedman
Huffington Post
National
6 page(s)
7/10/2012

Abstract: The most obvious measure of citizen participation in the democratic process is voter turnout — how many people vote and who they are. The numbers can be measured in various ways: by the percentage of registered voters who actually voted, by the percentage of those citizens old enough to vote who voted or by the percentage of eligible voters who voted. Regardless of which metric of eligibility you use, the United States has one of the lowest voter turnouts of any of the comparator countries, while Australia and Belgium have the highest.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; International election administration; Online voter registration; Same day/Election Day registration; Universal registration; Voter registration

Combine With: Turnout


Kenneth Moorefield
Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense
National
50 page(s)
8/31/2012

Abstract: The objectives of our assessment were to determine whether voting assistance programs carried out under the Uniformed and Overseas Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA), as amended, and subsequently modified by the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment (MOVE) Act: complied with the law and DoD implementing instructions and were effective in meeting the law’s intent.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter information & outreach; Voter registration


Matt Boehmer
Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP), U.S. Department of Defense
National
76 page(s)
2012

Abstract: During the 2012 general election cycle, FVAP made important strides to improve its processes, programs and tools. As a direct result of the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment (MOVE) Act amendments to the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA), the Department of Defense (DoD) now offers a wide array of voting assistance tools. This is most notable with the finding of a statistically significant relationship between the use of DoD voting assistance resources and a voter’s propensity for actually voting and returning an absentee ballot.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter information materials


David Kimball ; Lawrence Norden; Whitney Quesenbery
Brennan Center for Justice, New York University School of Law
National
56 page(s)
2012

Abstract: Design problems continue to have a major impact on elections. In 2008, the Brennan Center for Justice publication Better Ballots documented how design errors continued to plague elections, leading to the loss of hundreds of thousands of votes. The report made several policy recommendations to alleviate this chronic problem. This report continues the work of Better Ballots, detailing a few of the biggest design flaws in the elections of 2008 and 2010. Unlike Better Ballots, which only discussed Election Day ballots, this report also includes voting machine error messages, provisional and absentee ballot envelopes, and voter education materials. The quality of design of all of these materials can be the difference between counting and losing voters’ intended choices.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Ballot design; Ballot layout; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Low-income voters; Provisional ballots; Senior voters; Usability testing; Voter information materials

Combine With: Errors


R. Doug Lewis
Book of the States; Council of State Governments (CSG)
National
5 page(s)
7/1/2013

Abstract: States and local governments were faced with long lines and long wait times for some voters in Election 2012. What causes election problems? How does government get to the point where elections get off the front pages and return to stable events? The solutions are not simply limited to election administration. Smooth elections are a combination of policy, usually mandated at the state level by legislation or by regulation, resources allocated to the elections process, political considerations, and then administration of the process at the local level. What can states do to assure the best possible service to voters? What is the proper mix of policy, politics, practices and procedures?

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Acquisition/Procurement; Ballot length; Early/Advance in-person voting; Electronic pollbooks; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Provisional ballots; Same day/Election Day registration; Voting technology; Weekend voting

Combine With: Costs; Wait times


Israel Weismel-Manor; Jayme Neiman; Jeffrey French; John Hibbing; Kevin Smith
Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association
National
33 page(s)
8/1/2013

Abstract: One out of three voters in the 2012 U.S. elections voted at home rather than at traditional polling places yet little is known about the physiological and psychological consequences of distinct voting modalities. One potential difference is the amount of stress involved and, in order to determine the level of stress associated with different voting procedures, we conducted a novel field experiment within the context of the 2012 election. Participants were randomly assigned either to vote at the polls, to vote at home, or (as a control) to go to a convenience store. Stress levels were then measured via survey self-report and also via levels of cortisol, a glucocorticoid known to be relevant to stress. The results indicate a significant elevation in cortisol when voting took place at traditional polling places and therefore have implications for reformers pondering the value of expanding opportunities for at-home voting.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Voter demographics

Combine With: Turnout


Crobin Carson; Natasha Khan
Carnegie-Knight Initiative on the Future of Journalism Education; News21
National
6 page(s)
8/12/2012

Abstract: A News21 analysis of 2,068 alleged election-fraud cases since 2000 shows that while fraud has occurred, the rate is infinitesimal, and in-person voter impersonation on Election Day, which prompted 37 state legislatures to enact or consider tough voter ID laws, is virtually non-existent.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Electioneering & voter intimidation; Voter demographics; Voter ID; Voters with felony convictions

Combine With: Fraud


R. Michael Alvarez; Thad Hall
Accessible Voting Technology Initiative, Information Technology & Innovation Foundation (ITIF)
National
126 page(s)
5/14/2012

Abstract: This report examines the barriers to political participation that can exist for individuals with disabilities. Such studies can be difficult because there are few studies that examine both disability status and political variables such as party identification and ideology. No studies directly ask about whether a person’s disability status directly interferes with the various aspects of political participation, such as getting news about candidates or navigating the polling place in order to vote. The analyses that follow utilize data from several surveys, including the Current Population Survey, the 2008 Study of the Performance of American Elections, and the 2008 Cooperative Congressional Election Study.

Subject(s): Accessibility & usability; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Polling place accessibility; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities


David Becker
Pew Center on the States; The Pew Charitable Trusts
National; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas
11 page(s)
1/1/2012

Abstract: Significant changes in state laws since the passage of the federal 2009 Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment (MOVE) Act have greatly improved the ability of Americans abroad to vote and have their votes counted. These reforms finally begin to address the many challenges these voters have faced for decades.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Internet voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter education campaigns


Douglas Kruse; Lisa Schur
Board of Advisors, U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
20 page(s)
6/7/2011

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Polling place accessibility; Voters with disabilities

Combine With: Turnout


Douglas Kruse; Lisa Schur; Meera Adya
Research Alliance for Accessible Voting; U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
42 page(s)
7/18/2013

Abstract: We report results on disability and voting from analysis of two surveys: the Census Bureau’s voting supplement for November 2012, and a separate nationally representative survey of 3,022 citizens following the 2012 elections that includes new measures of voting difficulties and experiences. The second survey was conducted by a professional survey firm, and was stratified to oversample citizens with disabilities to obtain a clearer portrait of their experiences and challenges.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Ballot design; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Online voter registration; Polling place accessibility; Polling places; Voter demographics; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities

Combine With: Turnout


Elizabeth Rigby
Scholars Strategy Network
National
2 page(s)
4/1/2012

Abstract: Do recent changes in voter registration and voting practices actually make voting more equal in the United States? To answer this question, my colleague Melanie Springer and I looked at patterns of voting before and after each change in state rules about registration and voting. We used statistical techniques to control for many factors that might have influenced who votes, but we also honed in on inequalities between the rich and poor. To measure that inequality, we used data gathered by the U.S. Census Bureau in the November following each presidential or midterm election since 197 8 to develop an indicator of income vote bias. This indicator tells how much more likely the rich are to vote than people with lower incomes. On average, wealthier Americans are 65 percent more likely to vote than those with low incomes. However, the extent of this income skew has varied across the fifty states and over the course of the sixteen national elections held between 1978 and 2008.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Low-income voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter demographics; Voter registration

Combine With: Turnout


Jack Edwards
U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)
National
44 page(s)
6/1/2010

Abstract: In response to a congressional request, this report evaluates how FVAP (1) addresses its mission and evaluates efforts to conduct it, (2) aligns budget priorities with strategic goals, and (3) implemented DOD Office of Inspector General and GAO recommendations made from 2001 through 2009.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Internet voting; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Voter information & outreach


Estelle Rogers
Project Vote
National
8 page(s)
11/1/2013

Abstract: Voting in the United States has traditionally taken place on one day designated as “Election Day,” at least for federal elections. But, in recent years, many states have expanded opportunities to vote before Election Day, in order to accommodate voters’ schedules and in the hope of increasing turnout by making voting more convenient. Both early voting and “no-excuse” absentee voting other alternatives that broaden the availability of the ballot to eligible voters.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Election Day polling place voting; Polling place locations; Polling places; Voting methods

Combine With: Costs; Disenfranchisement; Turnout


Clifford Stanley
Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP), U.S. Department of Defense
National
48 page(s)
3/1/2011

Abstract: The Report provides information obtained from our quadrennial Post-Election Survey. In the 2008 general election, when adjusted for age and gender because the military is heavily weighted toward younger males, 73% of active duty military personnel voted as compared to 61.7% of the national voting population. Also when adjusted for age and gender, 87% of the active duty military was registered to vote as compared to 71% of the national voting population.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter education campaigns


Brennan Center for Justice, New York University School of Law
National
5 page(s)
10/11/2012

Abstract: In the past two years, states across the country passed a wave of laws that could make it harder to vote. The Brennan Center chronicled these laws in our report, Voting Law Changes in 2012. Overall, 25 laws and 2 executive actions passed in 19 states since the beginning of 2011. But then voting rights advocates fought back. Citizens rejected these laws at the polls, nearly a dozen courts overturned or weakened restrictive measures, and the Department of Justice blocked others. Below you will find a regularly-updated, comprehensive roundup of where laws were introduced, where they passed, where they were blocked or blunted, and where they are in effect for the 2012 election.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Hispanic voters; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter ID; Voter registration; Voters with felony convictions

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Turnout


Andreas Westgaard; Sean Greene; Zachary Markovits
Pew Center on the States; The Pew Charitable Trusts
National
80 page(s)
2/9/2012

Abstract: This first-ever comprehensive survey and analysis of the current data that measure how elections are administered in the United States reviews several ways in which existing information can be used to improve the system and maintain voter confidence. This report looks at sources such as state election divisions, the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) and its Election Administration and Voting Survey (EAVS), public opinion surveys, and expert assessments—then analyzes the data for completeness, strengths, weaknesses, and usefulness.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Evaluation & assessment; Military voters; Overseas voters; Provisional ballots; Voter registration

Combine With: Errors; Public opinion; Turnout; Voter confidence


Robert Stein
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
18 page(s)
9/4/2013

Abstract: The report is organized as follows. In the next section I review the different ways emergencies might impact the conduct of elections, identifying specific conditions and measures of performance with which to assess the impact of emergencies on the conduct of balloting on and before Election Day. In section three I identify several actions local election officials might take to mitigate the most pernicious effects of emergencies on the conduct of elections. In section four I report on the balloting experience in 3,000 U.S. counties during the 2012 Presidential election. This empirical analysis isolates the experiences and performance of counties that were under disaster declarations from those counties less affected by Hurricane Sandy. Section 5 concludes with a discussion of lessons and best practices learned from Hurricane Sandy and whether these practices are generalized to other jurisdictions not affected by Hurricane Sandy.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day emergencies; Election Day polling place voting; Poll worker training; Polling place hours; Polling place locations; Polling places; Vote centers

Combine With: Turnout


Robert Stein
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
19 page(s)
9/4/2013

Abstract: What steps can and do local election officials take to prepare for and respond to natural disasters and emergencies that impede and disrupt the operation of scheduled elections? How efficacious are these actions and practices, and to what extent, if any, can these practices be generalized to the 3,000+ jurisdictions charged with conducting elections?

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day emergencies; Election Day polling place voting; Poll worker training; Polling place hours; Polling place locations; Polling places; Vote centers

Combine With: Turnout


Bernard Grofman; R. Michael Alvarez
Cambridge University Press
National
280 page(s)
9/1/2014

Abstract: This book tells the story of how the way in which we conduct elections has changed after the Florida recount litigation of 2000. Some of the nation’s leading experts look at various aspects of election administration, including issues of ballot format, changes in registration procedures, the growth in the availability of absentee ballot rules and other forms of “convenience voting,” and changes in the technology used to record our votes. They also look at how the Bush v. Gore decision has been used by courts that monitor the election process and at the consequences of changes in practice for levels of invalid ballots, magnitude of racial disparities in voting, voter turnout, and access to the ballot by those living outside the United States. The editors, in their introduction, also consider the normative question of exactly what we want a voting system to do. An epilogue by two leading election law specialists looks at how election administration and election contest issues played out in the 2012 presidential election.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Ballot design; Canvassing & election certification; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Optical scan voting machines; Poll worker qualifications; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Polling places; Portable registration; Provisional ballots; Recounts; Security; Vote counting & recounting; Voter ID; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities; Voters with felony convictions; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Disenfranchisement; Errors; Fraud; Litigation; Public opinion; Turnout; Voter confidence


Nathaniel Persily
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
34 page(s)
6/21/2013

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Asian-American voters; Ballot design; Election Day emergencies; Hispanic voters; Military voters; Overseas voters; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Provisional ballots; Voter demographics; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities

Combine With: Errors; Turnout; Wait times


Kathleen Hale
Election Center
National; Arizona; Colorado; Florida; Kansas; Louisiana; North Carolina; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Texas
20 page(s)
5/7/2014

Abstract: Contains overviews of the main arguments in various election-related court cases in 2014 including: Arcia v. Detzner on voter list maintenance; Arizona v. Inter Tribal Council of AZ on proof of citizenship requirements for registration; Kobach v. U.S. EAC on proof of citizenship requirements; Scott v. Scheduler/U.S. v. Louisiana on process at voter registration agencies; Shelby County v. Holder on the Voting Rights Act; U.S. v. Texas on voter ID; U.S. v. North Carolina on in-person voting, early voting and same day registration; Applewhite v. Pennsylvania on voter ID; several cases on minority language provisions; several cases on the UOCAVA requirement for transmitting absentee ballots to voters 45 days prior to an election; SEIU v. Husted on provisional ballots cast in the wrong precinct; Citizen Center v. Gessler on voted ballots as public record; and Voting for America v. Andrade and League of Women Voters v. Detzner on regulation of 3rd party voter registration drives.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Asian-American voters; Bilingual & multilingual ballots; Early/Advance in-person voting; Hispanic voters; Military voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Overseas voters; Poll worker qualifications; Poll worker recruitment; Preregistration for teens; Provisional ballots; Runoff elections; Same day/Election Day registration; Senior voters; Special elections; Voter ID; Voter information materials; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voter registration drives; Voters with disabilities; Voters with limited-English proficiency

Combine With: Wait times


Andrew McCoy; Emily Lippolis; Rebecca Green; Shanna Reulbach
College of William & Mary School of Law; Standing Committee on Election Law, American Bar Association
National
57 page(s)
5/1/2013

Abstract: The ABA Standing Committee on Election Law presents this Report to provide an overview of research and proposals to address Election Day delays. The information and insights contained in this Report are intended as a starting point for further research into the problems delaying voters at the polls. The Report surveys proposed solutions, but makes none of its own. While it represents the collective work of the Standing Committee, not every member of the Standing Committee may agree with or endorse all of the information provided on potential causes or solutions. It is, however, the Standing Committee’s goal to initiate a discussion that brings to the table all relevant viewpoints in the hope of assisting in developing a consensus as to best practices to run elections that are fair, accurate, and efficient.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Ballot length; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day emergencies; Election Day holiday; Electronic pollbooks; Internet voting; Online voter registration; Optical scan voting machines; Poll worker compensation; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Same day/Election Day registration; Vote centers; Voter education campaigns; Voter ID; Weekend voting

Combine With: Wait times


Corbin Carson
Carnegie-Knight Initiative on the Future of Journalism Education; News21
National
8/12/2012

Abstract: This database contains all cases reported to News21 of alleged election fraud across America since 2000.

Subject(s): Absentee voting

Combine With: Fraud


United States Postal Service
National
21 page(s)
8/4/2015

Abstract: This report by the United States Postal Service Office of the Inspector General argues that vote-by-mail offers both a way to provide opportunities for citizens to participate in elections, as well as an opportunity to generate revenue for the USPS.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Voting methods

Combine With: Costs; Turnout


United States Postal Service
National
34 page(s)
2/1/2011

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Election administrators; Military voters; Overseas voters; Security; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities


Barry Burden; David Canon; Donald Moynihan; Kenneth Mayer; Stéphane Lavertu
National; Wisconsin
42 page(s)
9/1/2010

Abstract: The method by which we select public officials can have a significant effect on their incentives, the constraints they face, and ultimately the policy goals they pursue. We explore this phenomenon using election administration as a case. We examine differences in the policy preferences among elected and appointed election officials, and explore the relationship between those attitudes and the administrative outcomes they may engender. We employ a uniquely rich dataset that includes the survey responses of over 1,200 Wisconsin election officials, structured interviews with dozens of these officials, and data from the 2008 presidential election. Drawing upon a natural experiment in how clerks are selected, we find that elected officials support policies that emphasize voter access rather than ballot security, and that their municipalities are associated with higher voter turnout. For appointed officials, we find that voter turnout in a municipality is noticeably lower when the local election official’s partisanship differs from the partisanship of the electorate. Overall, our results support the notion that selection methods, and the incentives that flow from those methods, matter a great deal. Elected officials are more likely to express attitudes and generate outcomes that reflect their direct exposure to voters, in contrast to the more insulated position of appointed officials.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Ballot design; Election administrators; Voting methods

Combine With: Turnout


R. Doug Lewis
The Council of State Governments
National
4 page(s)
7/1/2011

Abstract: States need to be aware that the budget crisis for state and local governments is likely to put the 2012 presidential election—and beyond—more at risk than at any time since the 2000 election. Despite the successes of each election cycle in 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010, severe budget constraints have the potential to cause voting concerns in 2012. Actions, if taken soon, can lessen the strain on state and local governments. Changes in state election laws and practices can result in temporary and/or permanent savings for both state and local election offices. Some federal mandates will trigger greater expenses for both near-term and long-term future decisions.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Ballot design; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Election consolidation; Election scheduling & rescheduling; Online voter registration; Poll worker training; Vote centers; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs


R. Doug Lewis
The Council of State Governments
National
3 page(s)
6/1/2010

Abstract: Governors and state legislators need to re-evaluate the federal changes to voter registration and election administration and determine if the model for management of those functions is current to state needs and practices. Where the election process for more than two centuries has been principally at the local level through county and city governments, with states responsible for policy development and enforcement, Congress continues to make the states the chief administrative body. State administrative and legislative response to the dramatic changes in level of responsibility has not kept pace with the federal mandates.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Election administrators; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter demographics; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voting technology


The Pew Charitable Trusts
National
4/7/2014

Abstract: The Elections Performance Index is a project that, for the first time ever, examines election administration performance across all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Users can click through the new online interactive to see where their state stands based on the indicators of their choice.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Evaluation & assessment; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Post-election audits; Provisional ballots; Voter information & outreach; Voter list maintenance; Voters with disabilities

Combine With: Turnout; Wait times


Merle King
Travis County Clerk
National
2 page(s)
1/22/2014

Abstract: U.S. Election Officials plan and execute elections under considerable pressure. This pressure includes deteriorating voting systems, increasingly complex election systems, declining resources, diminishing numbers of poll workers, increased expectations for efficiency, effectiveness, and convenience, and increased scrutiny of election observers and activists.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Acquisition/Procurement; Certification & testing; Election administrators; Maintenance; Military voters; Overseas voters; Vote counting & recounting; Voter demographics; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities; Voting technology

Combine With: Errors


Paul Gronke
U.S. District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina
National; North Carolina
70 page(s)
2/24/2014

Abstract: There is strong and consistent evidence that African-American voters in North Carolina prefer to cast an early in-person ballot at higher rates than White voters. The pattern is consistent across elections, and is stronger in Presidential elections than in midterm elections. My expert opinion is that the patterns that have been observed since 2006, and that were strengthened in 2008, have and will continue to persist. African Americans show a higher preference for one-stop absentee voting, and show a higher preference for voting during the first week of early voting, when compared to White voters. They have habituated to this mode of balloting. There is no reason not to expect these patterns to continue in the future. I conclude from the analyses in this report that the changes to early in-person voting that I have reviewed—eliminating the first seven days of one-stop early voting—will have a differential and negative impact on the ability of African Americans to cast a ballot in North Carolina. I know of no empirical argument by which one could conclude that African-American voters—or any voters for that matter—will successfully adjust to 40% fewer early voting days, regardless of the possibility of longer hours on those days. 53. With respect to same-day registration during the early voting period, there is similarly strong evidence that minority voters show a higher preference for same day registration when compared to White voters. There is no reason not to expect these patterns to continue in the future. 54.I conclude from the analysis in this report that, because same-day voter registration has been shown to be a strong and consistent predictor of higher turnout, the elimination of same-day registration during the election process, whether during one-stop voting or on Election Day, will lower turnout overall. In particular, I conclude that eliminating same-day registration will have a disparate impact on African-American voters because they take advantage of same-day registration at a significantly higher rate.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Polling place hours; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter registration

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Turnout


Douglas Kruse; Lisa Schur
Rutgers School of Management and Labor Relations
National
10 page(s)
6/1/2011

Abstract: Key points: 11.0 million people with disabilities reported voting in the November 2010 elections. The voter turnout rate of people with disabilities was 3 percentage points lower than that of people without disabilities. Employed people with disabilities, however, were just as likely as employed people without disabilities to vote, suggesting that employment helps bring people with disabilities into mainstream political life. The voter registration rate of people with disabilities was 1 percentage point lower than that of people without disabilities. The lower voter turnout is due both to a lower registration rate among people with disabilities, and to lower turnout among those who are registered.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Election Day polling place voting; Senior voters; Voter demographics; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities

Combine With: Turnout


FairVote
National
1 page(s)
8/1/2014

Abstract: This document argues that ranked choice voting absentee ballots provide a legal and practical solution to the problem of military and overseas voters being disenfranchised in runoff elections.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Military voters; Voter demographics; Voting methods

Combine With: Disenfranchisement


FairVote
National
1 page(s)
8/1/2014

Abstract: This document argues that ranked choice absentee ballots provide a legal and practical solution to the problem of military and overseas voters being disenfranchised in presidential primaries.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Election types; Instant runoff voting/Ranked choice voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter demographics; Voting methods

Combine With: Disenfranchisement


FairVote
National
1 page(s)
12/17/2014

Abstract: This document provides model statutory language for legislation mandating the use of ranked choice ballots for military and overseas voters in presidential nomination contests.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Election types; Instant runoff voting/Ranked choice voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter demographics; Voting methods

Combine With: Disenfranchisement


Doug Chapin
Election Academy, Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota
National; California; Colorado; Oregon; Texas
1 page(s)
2/10/2014

Abstract: Recently, the National Review ran a piece by John Fund responding to the Presidential Commission on Election Administration’s report – largely supportive, but sharply critical of the endorsement of increased vote-by-mail balloting. Falls Church, VA’s David Bjerke didn’t agree – and he shared his response with me … and I am now sharing it with you.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Online voter registration; Vote centers; Voter ID; Voter list maintenance

Combine With: Costs; Turnout; Wait times


Kevin Arceneaux; Megan Mullin; Thad Kousser
Political Research Quarterly
National
13 page(s)
11/5/2012

Abstract: This study extends previous field experimental research on turnout by considering how institutional context moderates the effect of mobilization. Taking advantage of a setting in which some registrants are assigned to vote by mail, the authors find that a door-to-door mobilization campaign has a larger effect on the participation of those who vote at polling places than on registrants assigned to cast mail ballots, but only among individuals whose voting behavior is most likely to be shaped by extrinsic social rewards. The authors conclude that there may be payoff for election reform strategies that tap into voting’s social rewards.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Civic education; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Polling places; Voter education campaigns; Voter information & outreach

Combine With: Turnout


Dan Glickman; Dirk Kempthorne; Olympia Snowe; Tom Daschle; Trent Lott
Bipartisan Policy Center; Commission on Political Reform
National
120 page(s)
6/1/2014

Abstract: The Bipartisan Policy Center launched the Commission on Political Reform in 2013 to investigate the causes and consequences of America’s partisan political divide and to advocate for specific reforms that will improve the political process and that will work in a polarized atmosphere. The commission met at public and private institutions across the country to hear from interested citizens, political leaders, and issue experts about the problems and potential solutions. It is clear that Americans are concerned about the lack of civil discourse and the increasing inability of the U.S. political system to grapple with the nation’s biggest challenges. These shortcomings put the nation at risk of losing its standing in the world. This report, Governing in a Polarized America: A Bipartisan Blueprint to Strengthen our Democracy, is the culmination of the commission’s public and private deliberations, but it is not the end of its work. Our recommendations provide a realistic path forward to strengthen U.S. democracy. The commission does not pretend to have discovered the cure to all that ails democracy. But, 29 Americans have come together as part of our commission to embrace a truly bipartisan reform agenda. The commission identifies reforms in three specific areas: the electoral process, the process by which Congress legislates and manages its own affairs, and the ability of Americans to plug into the nation’s civic life through public service. We chose to focus on three broad areas of reform, because the polarization in the United States runs deeply through its institutions, affects the ways Americans elect political leaders and how the institutions of government operate, and even puts in danger Americans’ deep-seated desire to serve their nation.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Civic education; Closed primaries; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Election types; Institutional arrangements; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Nonpartisan election administration; Online voter registration; Open primaries; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Provisional ballots; Recounts; Vote counting & recounting; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Fraud; Litigation; Turnout; Voter confidence


William Kelleher
Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association
National
64 page(s)
8/28/2014

Abstract: Internet voting in the USA has a tragic history. It began in the year 2000. It worked so well that Congress approved a major project for the Department of Defense to provide website based Internet voting for overseas military. But the project was abruptly aborted, and the reputation of Internet voting suffered a blow from which it is yet to recover. In chronicling these events our discourse analysis shows how a coup d’état of the election administration function was executed through the control of Internet voting’s meaning.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Certification & testing; Internet voting; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Security; Voting technology

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Fraud; Public opinion


Diane Kasden; Jonathan Brater; Lawrence Norden; Wendy Weiser
Brennan Center for Justice, New York University School of Law
National
44 page(s)
12/19/2013

Abstract: Everyone agrees that the long lines of 2012 were a disgrace. This is a plan for how we can “fix that.” What follows are practical, evidence- and research-based best practices regarding four areas of reform — each of which will improve election administration and the voting experience:1. Modernizing voter registration; 2. Expanding early voting; 3. Improving management of polling place resources; and 4. Improving the simplicity and usability of ballots and voting machines, and publishing data on machine performance.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Ballot design; Ballot layout; Ballot wording; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Electronic pollbooks; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Online voter registration; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Portable registration; Registration/Ballot status updates; Same day/Election Day registration; Usability testing; Voter education campaigns; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Weekend voting

Combine With: Costs; Errors; Wait times


Allyson Pellissier
Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project (VTP)
National
42 page(s)
2/18/2014

Abstract: Online voter registration is one of the most recent efforts to stimulate turnout in American elections. Within the past decade, an increasing number of states have begun to allow their residents to register as voters electronically. Like other efforts to increase political participation, though, the actual impact on registration and turnout remains unclear. Although other voting liberalizations have received a fair amount of scrutiny, the peer-reviewed literature does not include a systematic exploration of how voters are responding to online registration. In this paper, I develop an individual-level model that point identifies an estimate for the impact of online registration on the likelihood of both registration and turnout. The results suggest that online registration may be one of the more successful implementations of convenience voting. Perhaps even more importantly, its effects seem to be concentrated most highly among young adults and those who have moved recently, two subgroups that are consistently underrepresented at the polls. I then use the individual-level model to predict changes in state-level aggregate turnout and identify states for which this registration alternative could have influenced the election. Although it is hard to know how the partisan distribution would shift, several states in both the 2008 and 2012 Presidential elections could have experienced different outcomes had they offered online registration. At both the individual and aggregate level, therefore, the introduction of online registration may have significant implications for American elections.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Asian-American voters; Hispanic voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Online voter registration; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter demographics; Voter registration; Youth voters

Combine With: Costs; Turnout


International Experience With E-Voting: Norwegian E-Vote Project
Ben Goldsmith; John Turner; Jordi Barrat i Esteve
International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES)
National
196 page(s)
6/1/2012

Abstract: This assessment report on International Experiences with E-Voting has been conducted as part of a larger assessment of the Norway E-Vote Project, a pilot of internet voting during the September 2011 local government elections. This report represents one of seven assessment topics conducted on behalf of the Ministry for Local Government and Rural Development in order to analyze the recent pilot, and determine whether a broader adoption of internet voting would be suitable for future Norwegian elections. The report largely focuses on internet voting experiences, first reviewing countries which have used internet voting and summarizing their experiences. This review highlights a number of thematic issues and challenges related to internet voting. Four issues are singled out for more detailed analysis: trust in Internet voting; the secrecy and freedom of the vote; the accessibility of Internet voting; and the role of stakeholders. The report reviews several examples of Internet voting in more depth, examples where Internet voting has been used for a number of elections – Estonia, France and Switzerland-Geneva. A brief summary of these case studies is presented in the main body of the report, with the full case studies included in the annex. The final part of the report looks at the global experiences of non-remote electronic voting and concludes by identifying emerging trends in the use of non-remote electronic voting worldwide.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Acquisition/Procurement; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Bilingual & multilingual ballots; Certification & testing; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; International election administration; Internet voting; Maintenance; Optical scan voting machines; Overseas voters; Post-election audits; Security; Vote counting & recounting; Voter demographics; Voter education campaigns; Voter ID; Voters with disabilities; Voting technology; Youth voters

Combine With: Costs; Errors; Fraud; Litigation; Public opinion; Voter confidence


Dari Sylvester; Keith Smith
Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy
National
18 page(s)
9/3/2013

Abstract: In this article we use the results of a field experiment to investigate whether the choice to convert to permanent vote-by-mail (PVBM) status is driven primarily by individual voters’ characteristics—such as a registrant’s propensity to vote—or the messages elections administrators and advocates use to convince them to change their status. We find two significant outcomes. First, regardless of the message received, high-propensity voters are much more likely to convert than are low-propensity voters. Second, among low-propensity voters the convenience-based message was the least likely to cause conversion to PVBM status, and none of the messages had a significant effect among high-propensity and prior-PVBM registrants. Taken together, these results suggest that the current focus by scholars and practitioners on VBM’s impact on the costs of voting may be misplaced.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Voter demographics; Voter information & outreach

Combine With: Costs; Turnout


Alan Gerber; Conor Dowling; David Doherty; Gregory Huber
British Journal of Political Science
National
46 page(s)
1/1/2013

Abstract: Ballot secrecy is a core feature of American elections, but whether voters believe their choices are protected has not been investigated. Using novel items from a nationally representative survey we find, first, that approximately 25% of all respondents do not believe their ballot choices are kept secret. Second, over 70% of respondents report sharing their vote choices with others. In sum, few people view their vote choices as truly private decisions. We describe how a standard theoretical account of candidate choice must be revised when voters believe their choices are public and examine how voter perceptions of ballot secrecy affect candidate choice. Our findings suggest that the translation from formal rules to perceptions about these rules is not straightforward and that subjective perceptions of how institutions work can affect voter behavior.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Voting technology

Combine With: Voter confidence


U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)
National; Alabama; Arkansas; Delaware; Kansas; Maine; Tennessee
210 page(s)
9/1/2014

Abstract: GAO was asked to review issues related to voter ID laws. This report reviews (1) what available literature indicates about voter ownership of and direct costs to obtain select IDs; (2) what available literature and (3) analyses of available data indicate about how, if at all, voter ID laws have affected turnout in select states; (4) to what extent provisional ballots were cast due to ID reasons in select states; and (5) what challenges may exist in using available information to estimate the incidence of in-person voter fraud.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Asian-American voters; Hispanic voters; Provisional ballots; Voter demographics; Voter ID

Combine With: Costs; Disenfranchisement; Fraud; Turnout


Erin O’Brien; Keith Gunnar Bentele
Perspectives on Politics
National
55 page(s)
12/1/2013

Abstract: In an effort to bring empirical clarity and epistemological standards to what has been a deeply charged, partisan and frequently anecdotal debate, this paper uses multiple specialized regression approaches to examine factors associated with both the proposal and adoption of restrictive voter access legislation from 2006-11. Our results indicate that proposal and passage are highly partisan, strategic, and racialized affairs. These findings are consistent with a scenario in which the targeted demobilization of minority voters and African Americans is a central driver of recent legislative developments. We discuss the implications of these results for current partisan and legal debates regarding voter restrictions and our understanding of the conditions incentivizing modern suppression efforts. Further, we situate these policies within developments in social welfare and criminal justice policy that collectively reduce electoral access among the socially marginalized.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Early/Advance in-person voting; Low-income voters; Proof of citizenship requirement; Voter ID; Voter registration; Voters with felony convictions

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Fraud; Turnout


Taeku Lee
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
31 page(s)
9/4/2013

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; African-American voters; Asian-American voters; Election Day polling place voting; Hispanic voters; Poll worker training; Provisional ballots; Voter demographics; Voter registration; Voters with limited-English proficiency

Combine With: Errors; Turnout


Charles Stewart III; Daron Shaw
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
49 page(s)
8/3/2013

Abstract: The Election Administration and Voting Survey (EAVS), administered biennially since 2004 by the U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC), is the single most comprehensive data resource concerning local election administration in the United States today. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an introduction to the survey and to paint a picture of election administration in the 2012 election (with comparisons to 2008) based on its results.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Military voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Overseas voters; Polling places; Provisional ballots; Registration/Ballot status updates; Voter demographics; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration

Combine With: Public opinion; Turnout; Wait times


Dana Chisnell
Center for Civic Design; Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
24 page(s)
9/4/2013

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Ballot design; Ballot layout; Early/Advance in-person voting; Polling places; Vote counting & recounting; Voter ID; Voter information & outreach; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities


Charles Stewart III
New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy
National
30 page(s)
12/6/2010

Abstract: The larger purpose of this paper is not to argue that voting methods that rely on the mail, whether they are mail-in absentee ballots or Oregon’s statewide vote-by-mail system, do or must result in an inordinate number of lost votes. 3 Rather, this paper aims to show that we should be monitoring the lost-votes problem in the context of voting by mail, and that the current state of post-election data gathering is insufficient to identify where the biggest problems with vote-by-mail exist.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Vote counting & recounting; Voting technology

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Errors


Inés Levin; J. Andrew Sinclair; R. Michael Alvarez
Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project (VTP); The Pew Charitable Trusts
National
43 page(s)
3/15/2010

Abstract: In this study we analyze the choice of voting mode in the 2008 presidential election. We use a large-sample survey with national coverage that allows us to overcome limitations of previous studies. Our analysis provides a number of insights into some of the important debates about convenience voting. Among other things, we find little support for the hypothesis that convenience voting methods have partisan implications; although we do find voter attributes that lead to the choice of some particular convenience voting mode. Results like these have important implications for future moves towards convenience voting and the design of new outreach campaigns.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Asian-American voters; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Hispanic voters; Permanent absentee voting; Voter demographics


Georgia Tech Research Institute; Information Technology and Innovation Foundation; Operation BRAVO Foundation
National
16 page(s)
7/24/2012

Abstract: The number of veterans with disabilities continues to grow as a result of the War on Terrorism. Although voting accessibility has improved since the Help America Vote Act (HAVA), voters with disabilities still face barriers to voting privately and independently. Compared to people without disabilities, people with disabilities are more likely to report having a voter registration problem, experiencing difficulty with voting equipment, and needing help to vote.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Ballot design; Ballot layout; Ballot length; Ballot wording; Military voters; Online voter registration; Polling place accessibility; Polling places; Software-based systems; Voter demographics; Voter information & outreach; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities; Voting technology


Eric Eversole
Amvets Legal Clinic, Chapman University School of Law; Military Voter Protection Project
National
18 page(s)
2010

Abstract: Like the EAC’s report, our report focuses on four key data sets: (1) the total number of absentee ballots requested by military voters in each state; (2) the total number of absentee ballots that were transmitted to military voters in each state; (3) the number of absentee military ballots that were returned, cast, and counted in each state; and (4) the number of absentee military ballots that were rejected in each state and the reason why the ballot was rejected.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Military voters


Joe Wilson
Subcommittee on Military Personnel, U.S. House Committee on Armed Services
National
93 page(s)
7/15/2011

Abstract: Today the subcommittee meets to hear the testimony on military and overseas voting from the Department of Defense, local election officials, and a military officer who was a voting assistance officer while deployed to Afghanistan during the 2010 election.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Vote counting & recounting; Voter demographics; Voter information & outreach; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Errors; Fraud


J. Mijin Cha; Liz Kennedy
Demos
National; Colorado; Florida; Hawaii; Oregon; Washington
7 page(s)
2/18/2014

Abstract: Early voting allows eligible voters more time to review issues and cast their ballot. Early voting can increase voter participation. States should expand early in-person voting locations and adopt no-excuse permanent absentee voting.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Hispanic voters; Low-income voters

Combine With: Turnout; Wait times


Jacob Quinn Shenker; R. Michael Alvarez
USENIX Journal of Election Technology and Systems (JETS)
National
17 page(s)
7/1/2014

Abstract: Elections have traditionally depended on procedural safeguards and best practices to ensure integrity and instill trust. By making it difficult for individuals to manipulate ballots undetected, these policies electoral malfeasance. Even so, it is clearly preferable to move beyond this kind of best-effort security and instead provide strong guarantees of integrity and privacy.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Canvassing & election certification; Optical scan voting machines; Security; Software-based systems; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Errors; Fraud; Turnout; Voter confidence


National Association of Secretaries of State (NASS)
National
2 page(s)
10/27/2010

Abstract: A short fact sheet containing information on the absentee voting procedures of the states.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Voting methods

Combine With: Turnout


National Association of Secretaries of State (NASS)
National
2 page(s)
10/26/2010

Abstract: An overview of the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act (MOVE), signed into law on October 28, 2009, as part of the National Defense Authorization Act of 2010. MOVE makes changes to certain absentee voting laws and procedures that apply to military and overseas citizens. Specifically, the MOVE Act amends the 1986 Uniformed and Overseas Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA). In addition to new state election administration procedures, it requires the U.S. Department of Defense to expand its outreach services to UOCAVA voters and implement procedures for express mail delivery of ballots from military voters stationed overseas. The MOVE Act also authorizes the Department of Defense to conduct electronic voting pilot programs.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Ballot design; Voting methods; Voting technology

Combine With: Turnout


National Association of Secretaries of State (NASS)
National
3  page(s)
8/1/2014

Abstract: A NASS staff review of state statutes regarding when absentee ballots are counted.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Vote counting & recounting; Voting methods

Combine With: Turnout


National Association of Counties (NACo)
National
8 page(s)
2/1/2013

Abstract: In December 2012, 80 members of the NACo Board of Directors participated in a live polling session to explore local perspectives on national politics and elections, county fiscal conditions, public pensions, health, immigration, economic development, natural disasters, and more. This report summarizes the findings of that session, called an “eForum.”

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Internet voting; Voter ID


Demos
National
7 page(s)
9/12/2013

Abstract: Five important online election tools to help voters find the information they need the most are summarized, and their availability in all 50 states and the District of Columbia’s official election websites for the 2012 November election is shown below.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Polling places; Provisional ballots; Voter information & outreach; Voter registration


Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP), U.S. Department of Defense; Office of Wounded Warrior Care and Transition Policy; U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
107 page(s)
9/16/2011

Abstract: As part of a broad initiative to evaluate potential systems for remote voting electronic pilot projects, Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP) coordinated with the Office of Wounded Warrior Care and Transition Policy (WWCTP) and the U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) to address the voting related needs of Wounded Warriors by assessing the usability, accessibility, and privacy of electronic voting systems. This report details the results of this assessment, and includes: an evaluation of Wounded Warrior needs for electronic voting systems, recommendations to improve both Internet Voting Systems (IVSs) and Electronic Ballot Delivery Systems (EBDSs), recommendations to enhance the usability and accessibility portions of the EAC’s UOCAVA Pilot Program Testing Requirements (UPPTR), and recommendations for future testing efforts.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Ballot design; Military voters; Voter information & outreach; Voter information materials; Voters with disabilities; Voting technology

Combine With: Errors; Fraud


Aysha Shujaat; Ben Goldsmith; Peter Erben
International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES)
National
16 page(s)
4/1/2012

Abstract: This paper strives to provide a brief overview of the options, risks and opportunities facing a nation considering out-of-country voting (OCV). The resources available for out-of-country voting are extensive and provide comprehensive knowledge on international practices and lessons-learned for those considering out-of-country voting. A selection of key literature is available in a listing at the end of this paper. This selection contains a wide array of global case studies and statistics, which provide important insight into the successes and failures of other nations. Studying this is pivotal to making an informed decision and effectively implementing out-of-country voting anywhere.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Election administrators; Internet voting; Overseas voters; Polling places; Software-based systems; Voting methods; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Fraud


Claire Smith; Thad Hall
Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association; Overseas Vote Foundation (OVF)
National
43 page(s)
4/1/2011

Abstract: In October 2009, the most significant bill in decades regarding overseas and military voters was passed by the Senate. The Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment (MOVE) Act was implemented by the states for the first time during 2010 elections, and dramatically changed the landscape of overseas voting. For example, in 2010, 48 states began emailing blank ballots to voters and 21 states accepted voted ballots via email. Although these changes were made to make voting easier for overseas and military citizens, were they successful? Were more people able to vote? Are they more satisfied with the process than in previous years? This paper provides a first look at voter survey data from the 2010 election and investigates the success of these public policies in promoting voter satisfaction. We adapt the variables used in traditional voter satisfaction studies to create hypotheses, and use data from the Overseas Vote Foundation (OVF) 2010 Post-Election Voter Survey to test the hypotheses and identify variables that hinder successful voting. These findings are contrasted with the results of the 2006 and 2008 elections.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Internet voting; Military voters; Overseas voters

Combine With: Public opinion


Charles Stewart III; Daron Shaw; Stephen Ansolabehere
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
26 page(s)
11/20/2013

Abstract: During late summer/early autumn, we conducted a national survey of local election officials. The purpose of the survey was to ascertain, in a systematic way, the views of local officials about the challenges and successes they had in the conduct of the 2012 general election. This document provides a summary overview of the findings from that survey. We anticipate writing a fuller report of the survey’s findings in the coming weeks.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Ballot design; Bilingual & multilingual ballots; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Election Day emergencies; Electronic pollbooks; Military voters; Overseas voters; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Provisional ballots; Voter education campaigns; Voter information materials; Voter list maintenance; Voters with limited-English proficiency; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Wait times


Lawrence Norden; Wendy Weiser
Brennan Center for Justice, New York University School of Law
National
4 page(s)
11/9/2011

Abstract: A shift that could change the electoral landscape is underway – the tightening of restrictions on who can vote and how Americans can vote. Going into the 2012 elections, there will be millions of Americans who will find that since 2008, there are new barriers that could prevent them from voting.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Early/Advance in-person voting; Hispanic voters; Low-income voters; Same day/Election Day registration; Senior voters; Voter demographics; Voter ID; Voter registration; Voter registration drives; Voters with felony convictions; Youth voters

Combine With: Costs; Disenfranchisement


Susan Dzieduszycka-Suinat
Overseas Vote Foundation (OVF); U.S. Vote Foundation
National
34 page(s)
1/1/2013

Abstract: Overseas Vote Foundation (OVF) is pleased to release the results of its 2012 Post-Election Survey of Military and Overseas Voters, and 2012 Local Election Official Survey. Now in their fifth federal election cycle, these surveys uniquely position OVF at the forefront of research concerning the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA) community and the election administration that facilitates military and overseas voting for American citizens abroad. More than 13,500 voters in 160 countries and more than 2,000 local election officials (LEOs) in the U.S. participated in the OVF surveys. These extensive surveys provide a unique look into the voting experiences of overseas citizens and military voters, and are an unequaled resource in supporting OVF’s ongoing mission to help UOCAVA voters register and vote in federal elections.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Internet voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Registration/Ballot status updates; Voter demographics

Combine With: Public opinion


The Pew Charitable Trusts
National
2 page(s)
1/15/2014

Abstract: Polling conducted by Public Opinion Strategies and the Mellman Group for The Pew Charitable Trusts indicates that many voters are not well-informed about election policies. Early voting is the area in which survey respondents demonstrated the most accurate knowledge. Of particular note, voters in states that allow Election Day registration knew more about their registration options than those in states that do not allow it.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter education campaigns

Combine With: Public opinion


Mark Earley
Florida State Association of Supervisors of Elections; Leon County Supervisor of Elections
National; Florida
17 page(s)
2014

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Post-election audits; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs


Lorelei St. James
Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate; U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)
National
8 page(s)
10/20/2011

Abstract: In summary, we found that voting by mail has limited potential for providing USPS with additional revenues substantial enough to affect its deteriorating financial condition because of the small potential increase in volume relative to total mail volume, the low profit margins on election mail, and the lack of strong nationwide support for voting by mail.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail

Combine With: Costs


Barry Burden; Brian Gaines
National
5 page(s)
3/13/2015

Abstract: Absentee and early voting are increasingly popular in the United States. Most states have embraced one of these options to make voting easier. Absentee voting is often marginally more convenient and might be less expensive to administer, but it also carries unique costs in terms of ballot insecurity, higher odds of error and fraud, and a concomitant reduction in public confidence. States intent on making the act of voting easier should prefer in-person early voting to absentee voting, while continuing to focus on improving the experience of Election Day voting.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Voting methods

Combine With: Turnout


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
5 page(s)
10/1/2014

Abstract: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission has collaborated with local election officials to develop a series of helpful tips for election management. This series provides tips and suggests best practices to help you run efficient and effective elections. While there is no federal law for suspending or postponing elections, some states have statutes or emergency provisions that authorize it under certain conditions. Other states will authorize their chief election officer, governor or local election officials to take action should a disaster occur. Whether an election emergency is natural or human-caused, jurisdiction-wide or localized, advance planning minimizes the disruption and aids in a quick recovery while preserving the security and integrity of the election.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Election Day emergencies; Election Day polling place voting; Poll worker training; Polling place hours; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Polling places; Vote centers

Combine With: Turnout


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
4 page(s)
10/1/2014

Abstract: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) collaborated with the U.S. Department of Defense’s Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP) to develop these tips for working with Service members, their families and citizens residing overseas. Service members, their families and overseas citizens face unique challenges in registering to vote and in requesting, receiving and returning their ballots. These six tips can help you more efficiently navigate the process for this special group of absentee voters.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Election administrators; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter demographics; Voter information & outreach; Voter information materials; Voting methods


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
4 page(s)
7/1/2014

Abstract: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission has collaborated with local election officials to develop a series of helpful tips for election management. This series provides tips and suggests best practices to help you run efficient and effective elections. Use the data collected throughout each election cycle to identify voter trends, improve election day operations, and make your day-to-day internal operations more effective.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Acquisition/Procurement; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Ballot layout; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Electronic pollbooks; Evaluation & assessment; Military voters; Poll worker training; Polling places; Post-election audits; Provisional ballots; Same day/Election Day registration; Software-based systems; Voter demographics; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Errors; Turnout; Wait times


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
4 page(s)
7/1/2014

Abstract: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission has collaborated with local election officials to develop a series of helpful tips for election management. This series provides tips and suggests best practices to help you run efficient and effective elections. How you manage the voting process directly impacts how easily voters in your district can cast their ballots. The voting process begins months before the first ballot is cast. Here are nine tips to help you improve the process.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Acquisition/Procurement; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Election Day emergencies; Election Day polling place voting; Electronic pollbooks; Evaluation & assessment; Military voters; Poll worker qualifications; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Polling place accessibility; Polling place hours; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Polling places; Provisional ballots; Security; Senior voters; Software-based systems; Voter demographics; Voter education campaigns; Voter information & outreach; Voter information materials; Voters with disabilities; Voting technology

Combine With: Turnout; Voter confidence; Wait times


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
4 page(s)
10/1/2014

Abstract: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission has collaborated with local election officials to develop a series of helpful tips for election management. This series provides tips and suggests best practices to help you run efficient and effective elections. Nationwide voting has slowly moved from one Election Day toward an election period of several days or weeks that can involve a variety of methods for voting. Maintaining the accuracy, security and integrity of elections — despite having to manage these multiple methods of voting — is still expected by the public.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Ballot on demand; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Electronic pollbooks; Optical scan voting machines; Software-based systems; Vote centers; Voter demographics; Voter education campaigns; Voter information & outreach; Voter information materials; Voting methods; Voting technology

Combine With: Turnout


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
4 page(s)
7/1/2014

Abstract: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission has collaborated with local election officials to develop a series of helpful tips for election management. This series provides tips and suggests best practices to help you run efficient and effective elections. Voter education programs impact voter turnout. Well-planned programs can motivate and encourage citizens to participate in the voting process. Try these seven tips to help strengthen your voter education efforts.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Election administrators; Election Day polling place voting; Electronic pollbooks; Polling place accessibility; Polling place hours; Polling place locations; Polling places; Provisional ballots; Senior voters; Voter demographics; Voter education campaigns; Voter information & outreach; Voter information materials; Voters with disabilities

Combine With: Public opinion; Turnout; Wait times


Jon Greenbaum
Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law; Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National; California; Colorado; Florida; Georgia; Illinois; Maryland; Michigan; New Jersey; New York; North Carolina; Ohio; Pennsylvania; South Carolina; Texas
40 page(s)
2013

Abstract: This document is divided into two parts. Part I summarizes the Lawyers’ Committee’s recommendations, which are drawn from the Lawyers’ Committee’s work, experience and expertise. Part II presents case studies from noteworthy jurisdictions that: Had significant problems in the lead up to and on Election Day, Have implemented reforms leading to positive outcomes, or Have innovative programs that serve as examples of best practices for administering elections.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Ballot length; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day emergencies; Electioneering & voter intimidation; Electronic pollbooks; Nonpartisan election administration; Online voter registration; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Portable registration; Same day/Election Day registration; Usability testing; Voter ID; Voter list maintenance; Voters with limited-English proficiency

Combine With: Wait times


Lisa Schur
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
12 page(s)
6/22/2013

Abstract: This white paper reviews the evidence on voter turnout and voting difficulties among people with disabilities, and identifies best practices for removing obstacles that can limit their ability to exercise their right to vote.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Ballot design; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Poll worker training; Polling place accessibility; Polling places; Voter demographics; Voter information & outreach; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities; Voting methods

Combine With: Turnout


Wendy Underhill
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL); Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
4 page(s)
8/8/2013

Abstract: Much of our work involves gathering and disseminating unbiased elections-related information for legislators. You’ll be glad to know that there is a great deal of overlap between their interests and the questions you are addressing here at the commission. I’ll start right off with the top five issues that legislators ask us about. You’ll see that integrity and costs are common themes through most of these issues.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Provisional ballots; Security; Voter demographics; Voter ID; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Errors


David Wagner
USENIX Electronic Voting Technology/Workshop on Trustworthy Elections
National
85 page(s)
8/13/2013

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Internet voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Polling place accessibility; Polling places; Security; Voter demographics; Voters with disabilities; Voting methods


Overseas Vote Foundation (OVF); Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
6 page(s)
6/7/2013

Abstract: We strongly encourage a “whole process” approach to improvements in UOCAVA voting. It is not just a ballot problem, or a registration form problem or a participation problem and there is no single fix for the low level of participation. The trends in UOCAVA voting are moving in the right direction; however it is not sufficient. Technology adoption, communications and process refinements are urgently needed. States and counties must more broadly implement comprehensive, usable technology and support voters in the process.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Internet voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter information & outreach; Voting technology

Combine With: Errors; Turnout


Justin Levitt
William & Mary Law Review
National
77 page(s)
2/19/2012

Abstract: The ghosts of the 2000 presidential election will return in 2012. Photo-finish, and error-laden, elections recur in each cycle. When the margin of error exceeds the margin of victory, officials and courts must decide which, if any, errors to discount or excuse, knowing that the answer will likely determine the election’s winner. Yet despite widespread agreement on the likelihood of another national meltdown, neither courts nor scholars have developed consistent principles for resolving the errors that cause the chaos. This Article advances such a principle, reflecting the underlying values of the electoral process. It argues that the resolution of an election error should turn on its materiality: whether the error is material to the eligibility of a voter or the determination of her ballot preference.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Provisional ballots; Vote counting & recounting; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration

Combine With: Costs; Disenfranchisement; Errors; Litigation


Joshua Benaloh
USENIX Journal of Election Technology and Systems (JETS)
National
26 page(s)
8/1/2013

Abstract: When the Australian secret ballot was introduced in the 1850s, it not only provided privacy for those voters who wanted it, but it also effectively eliminated coercion by allowing no viable means for voters to prove their votes to third parties. In an environment where the privacy of voters is enforced by independent observers, coerced voters could freely express their true preferences while making their selections. In contrast, modern technologies render the traditional poll-site protections largely ineffective, and the limited remaining options for preserving these protections will almost certainly disappear in the not-too-distant future. Today, in-person voters routinely carry video recording equipment and other technologies that facilitate coercion into polls, and although not yet ubiquitous, inexpensive and unobtrusive wearable video recording devices are readily available. In view of these realities, it is appropriate to re-examine the efforts and countermeasures currently employed and explore what defenses are possible and reasonable against various forms of voter coercion.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Election Day polling place voting; Electioneering & voter intimidation; Internet voting; Security


Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP), U.S. Department of Defense
National
55 page(s)
12/1/2015

Abstract: This report discusses and details Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP) research into implementing remote electronic voting systems for uniformed and overseas American voters.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Internet voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter demographics; Voting methods; Voting technology


Charles Bell; Craig Burkhardt; Harvey Tettlebaum; Jason Hanselman; Justin Riemer; Larry Levy; Michael Thielen
Republican National Lawyers Association
National
39 page(s)
4/10/2014

Abstract: The Republican National Lawyers Association (RNLA) issues this report to offer its perspective on the recent report of the Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA) outlining recommendations to improve election administration in the United States. RNLA agrees with many of the Commission’s recommendations, particularly its identification of deficiencies in our voter registration system as a significant contributor to Election Day problems such as long lines at the polls. The PCEA’s recommendations to reform voter registration are good ones and, if states adopted them, the reforms should greatly improve citizens’ voting experience. RNLA offers other suggestions in addition to adopting many of the PCEA’s recommendations. Taken in tandem, these recommendations will result in a secure and voter-friendly voter registration system that provides alternatives to same-day voter registration while avoiding the management issues which historically attend the combining of two functions on Election Day – voting and registration.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Certification & testing; Early/Advance in-person voting; Electronic pollbooks; Military voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Online voter registration; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Security; Voter demographics; Voter list maintenance; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Errors; Fraud; Turnout; Wait times


Lisa Schur; Meera Adya
Social Science Quarterly
National
26 page(s)
9/1/2013

Abstract: We examine whether people with disabilities are part of the political mainstream, or remain outsiders in important respects, by studying political participation and the underexplored topic of how disability relates to attitudes toward politics.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Low-income voters; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Polling places; Voter demographics; Voters with disabilities

Combine With: Turnout


Citizens for Election Integrity Minnesota (CEIMN)
National
2012

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Paper ballots; Poll watchers; Post-election audits; Provisional ballots; Punch cards; Recounts


Joshua Douglas
Ohio State Law Journal; Social Science Research Network
National; Arkansas; California; Georgia; Michigan; Minnesota; Pennsylvania; Rhode Island; Tennessee; Wisconsin
50 page(s)
4/1/2015

Abstract: State courts are paramount in defining the constitutional right to vote. This is in part because the right to vote is, in many ways, a state-based right protected under state constitutions. Yet our focus on state courts and on how state judges interpret the right to vote is sorely lacking. This article remedies that deficiency. It examines numerous state court cases involving voter ID, felon disenfranchisement, and the voting process, demonstrating that state courts vary in whether they rule broadly or narrowly toward voting rights. When state courts issue rulings broadly defining the constitutional right to vote, they best protect the most fundamental right in our democracy. On the other hand, state decisions that constrain voting to a narrower scope do harm to that ideal. Further, a preliminary analysis shows that liberal judges, as well as those who earn their seats through merit selection, are more likely to define the right to vote robustly as compared to their conservative and elected counterparts. Given that state judges impact our election system in significant ways through broad or narrow rulings on voting rights, we should advocate in favor of state courts and state judges who will broadly construe and protect the state-based constitutional right to vote.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Asian-American voters; Ballot marking tools; Bilingual & multilingual ballots; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Hispanic voters; Native American voters; Polling place management; Proof of citizenship requirement; Senior voters; Voter demographics; Voter ID; Voters with felony convictions; Voters with limited-English proficiency; Voting methods

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Fraud; Litigation; Public opinion; Turnout; Voter confidence


U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)
National
139 page(s)
10/4/2012

Abstract: This capping report draws on a considerable body of work recently done by GAO on election systems. We address three main issues that Congress may wish to keep in mind as it approaches election reform. First, we examine the division of federal and state authority to conduct elections and the resulting variation among election jurisdictions. Second, we describe the challenges that election officials face as they work with the people, processes, and technology involved in our administering our nation’s election systems. And third, we suggest four criteria that Congress could use as it weighs the merits of various reform proposals.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Polling places; Provisional ballots; Voter ID; Voter registration; Voter registration drives


David Macewen; Verdar May
National
29 page(s)
12/9/2013

Abstract: The enclosed action plan postures the Military Postal Service (MPS) to support the 2014 General election in compliance with the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA), the Military Overseas Voter Empowerment (MOVE) Act, and DoD directives. As an extension of the United States Postal Service (USPS), the MPS provides expedited processing, shipment, and tracking of absentee ballots from overseas Military Post Offices to the state election offices. This plan also lists requirements for the Military Services to include implementing guidance on processing balloting material in accordance with MPSA’s 2014 Strategic Postal Voting Action Plan.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Military voters


Charles Stewart III
Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project (VTP)
National
38 page(s)
12/3/2013

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Ballot length; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day emergencies; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Provisional ballots; Voter education campaigns; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Public opinion; Wait times


Douglas Kruse; Lisa Schur; Meera Adya
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
16 page(s)
5/9/2013

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Accessibility & usability; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Internet voting; Polling place accessibility; Voters with disabilities

Combine With: Public opinion; Turnout


John Carbone
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission); The International Association of Clerks, Recorders, Election Officials and Treasurers (IACREOT)
National
15 page(s)
9/4/2013

Abstract: IACREOT President Joanne Rajoppi appointed an IACREOT TASK FORCE to gather responses and produce a report for the Presidential Commission on Election Administration.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Ballot design; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day emergencies; Election Day polling place voting; Electronic pollbooks; Military voters; Online voter registration; Optical scan voting machines; Overseas voters; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Polling place accessibility; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Polling places; Provisional ballots; Vote centers; Vote counting & recounting; Voter demographics; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities; Voters with limited-English proficiency; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Errors; Voter confidence; Wait times


David Orr
Cook County Clerk ; Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National; Illinois
4 page(s)
9/20/2013

Abstract: You have already heard testimony in favor of many policies we have in suburban Cook County — Early Voting, no-fault Mail Voting and electronic pollbooks. Rather than repeat the benefits of those previous recommendations, I will endorse them. These practices take pressure off polling places on Election Day by giving voters more options or by making precincts more efficient. In my testimony I will explore the following: Weekend and holiday voting; Access to schools and optimal voting locations; Harvesting data through our Automated Call Form; Data-driven planning; Online mail ballot requests; Online voter registration; and A national online Voter Information Tool.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Election Day holiday; Online voter registration; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Same day/Election Day registration; Universal registration; Weekend voting


Election Protection Coalition; Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law
National
150 page(s)
2013

Abstract: This Election Protection report provides a snapshot of the endemic problems that continue to plague American elections and sets the stage for federal and state legislators, state executives, and election officials to finally address the enduring difficulties that infect the voting process of this country. Though long lines were the story of the day, the problems run deeper than what appeared in the news media; the lines were a visible symptom of institutional problems afflicting our system of elections. Every year, countless Americans across the country are blocked from voting—many having done everything they were supposed to do to exercise their civic right. For these eligible and qualified voters—who show up at the polls on Election Day to make their voices heard only to be turned away because they inexplicably do not appear on the voter rolls or encounter a poorly trained poll worker not following voting rules—our democracy is broken.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Electioneering & voter intimidation; Poll worker training; Polling place locations; Voter ID; Voter information & outreach; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Fraud; Wait times


Richard Hasen
The George Washington Law Review
National; Ohio
38 page(s)
11/29/2012

Abstract: The story of the 2012 voting wars is a story of Republican legislative and to some extent administrative overreach to contract voting rights, followed by a judicial and public backlash. The public backlash was somewhat expected — Democrats predictably made “voter suppression” a key talking point of the campaign. The judicial backlash, and the resurrection of Bush v. Gore in the Sixth Circuit, was not. The judicial reaction, from liberal and conservative judges and often on a unanimous basis, suggests that courts may now be more willing to act as backstops to prevent egregious cutbacks in voting rights and perhaps to do even more to assure greater equality and fairness in voting. However, it is possible that this trend will reverse in future elections.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Military voters; Provisional ballots; Voter ID; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Weekend voting

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Fraud; Litigation


The Pew Charitable Trusts
National
5 page(s)
10/13/2015

Abstract: To better understand voters’ experiences in the 2014 midterm elections, The Pew Charitable Trusts conducted analysis to examine both the expectations and the reality of voting practices. Among the most notable findings: many voters spend less time waiting at the polls than they expect, many change their minds about how to cast a ballot, and those who obtain ballots by mail return them in a variety of ways, not always using the U.S. Postal Service. These findings come from a series of surveys conducted with the same group of individuals in the months leading up to and immediately after the November 2014 midterm election.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Voting methods

Combine With: Wait times


Benjamin Ginsberg; Nathaniel Persily; Rob Richie
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
112 page(s)
1/1/2014

Abstract: Our examination spanned six months of public hearings and included consultations with state and local election officials, academic experts, and organizations and associations involved in one form or another with voting or election administration. In connection with testimony provided to the Commission, the Caltech-MIT Voting Technology Project also conducted a comprehensive survey of the views of thousands of local election officials around the country. As a result, the Commission presents its unanimous recommendations, together with an array of best practices in election administration, which will significantly improve the American voter’s experience and promote confidence in the administration of U.S. elections.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Ballot design; Ballot layout; Ballot length; Ballot marking tools; Ballot wording; Centralized/Decentralized election administration; Certification & testing; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election administrators; Election Day polling place voting; Military voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Polling place accessibility; Polling place hours; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Polling places; Post-election audits; Vote centers; Voter demographics; Voter information & outreach; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities; Voters with limited-English proficiency; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Turnout; Wait times


U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
311 page(s)
6/30/2015

Abstract: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission’s (EAC’s) Election Administration and Voting Survey (EAVS) is the Nation’s foremost data collection effort related to voter registration, election administration, and the ways in which Americans cast their ballots. The biennial survey collects data at the county (or equivalent) jurisdictional level, and is administered to 50 States, the District of Columbia, and four territories. The data provided by States concern the 2014 election cycle: the period between the November 2012 presidential election and the November 2014 midterm election. This document compiles this data, and provides findings on a wide range of election administration issues.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Election types; Evaluation & assessment; Military voters; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Poll worker qualifications; Poll worker recruitment; Poll worker training; Polling place accessibility; Polling place management; Polling places; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter demographics; Voter information & outreach; Voter registration; Voting methods; Voting technology

Combine With: Public opinion; Turnout; Voter confidence


Ali Valenzuela; Allison Carnegie; Andrew Healy; Donald Green; Melissa Michelson; Neil Malhorta
Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy
National
12 page(s)
9/6/2011

Abstract: In collaboration with local election officials, we conducted a randomized field experiment in which postage-paid envelopes were provided to a random sample of 10,000 permanent vote-by-mail (VBM) voters in San Mateo County, California, in advance of the November 2, 2010, general election. We find that the treatment generated statistically significant but unexpected effects: postage-paid envelopes increased the probability that voters cast their ballots in person and decreased the probability that they cast their ballots by mail. These offsetting effects meant that the intervention produced no net change in voter turnout. We find that this pattern of countervailing effects is strongest among voters who frequently voted by mail in the past, those potentially most susceptible to disruptions in routine. Post-election interviews support the idea that the postage-paid envelopes created confusion for some voters. The results suggest that reforms designed to increase turnout by decreasing voting costs may have the unintended effect of disrupting routines.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Election Day polling place voting

Combine With: Costs; Turnout


Pew Center on the States; The Pew Charitable Trusts
National
4 page(s)
2/1/2013

Abstract: A number of government agencies gather data on aspects of election administration, but never before has this information been collected and analyzed comprehensively to measure the performance of election administration systems across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. To fill this need, the Pew Center on the States developed the first Elections Performance Index (EPI). This online, interactive tool uses 17 indicators to summarize election administration policies and practices across all states and over time.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Evaluation & assessment; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Post-election audits; Provisional ballots; Voter registration

Combine With: Errors; Turnout


Charles Posner; Lauren Harmon; Matt Dhaiti; Michele Jawando
National
93 page(s)
7/1/2015

Abstract: In the United States, certain rights and privileges of citizenship are protected both by the Constitution and under federal law. In practice, however, state laws are critical in determining the health of the democratic process and the ability of citizens to make their votes count in particular states. Most decisions are made at the state level—by legislation, administrative procedures, or judicial rulings—and the results determine the extent to which citizens experience the robust benefits of a democratic society. This report aims to take a broad approach to evaluate state-level democratic performance. It evaluates measures such as voting laws, redistricting, campaign finance, fair courts, and more as vital, interconnected pieces of a state democracy. While these topics usually have been analyzed in their own discrete silos, this report examines each state’s performance across measures in order to better examine the diverse criteria necessary for a successful democratic system.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Ballot design; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election types; Evaluation & assessment; Institutional arrangements; National Voter Registration Act/Motor Voter; Online voter registration; Portable registration; Voter registration; Voting methods

Combine With: Public opinion; Turnout; Voter confidence


Eric Fischer; Kevin Coleman
Congressional Research Service (CRS)
National
17 page(s)
10/21/2013

Abstract: This report provides background information about HAVA and its provisions, the EAC, funding for the agency and for state programs to improve elections, and a number of enduring election administration issues.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Acquisition/Procurement; Ballot design; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Maintenance; Military voters; Optical scan voting machines; Overseas voters; Voter demographics; Voter ID; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs


The Pew Charitable Trusts
National
1 page(s)
11/26/2013

Abstract: Local and state laws can result in costly uncontested elections for jurisdictions.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail

Combine With: Costs


Claire Smith; Michael Hanmer; Paul Herrnson
National; Maryland
13 page(s)
6/1/2015

Abstract: Research on absentee and early voting laws has led many scholars to conclude that these convenience voting methods do little to boost turnout. But most of this work has evaluated these methods well after their implementation and without consideration for how information campaigns about them might alter voter behavior. Voter mobilization research shows that impersonal communications produce little-to-no effect on turnout. But we know much less about how mobilization might influence changes in the method of voting. Using a field experiment during the 2010 midterm primary and general elections in Maryland, we demonstrate that e-mail messages with concise subject lines that appeal to relevant reference groups combined with an easy-to-use electronic absentee ballot delivery system, increase the likelihood that overseas voters will use a new technology when they participate in elections. Our findings have scholarly and practical implications for election reform, campaign communications, and voter mobilization.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Overseas voters; Voter demographics; Voting methods

Combine With: Turnout


Barry Burden; Charles Stewart III
National
377 page(s)
7/1/2014

Abstract: Policymaking in the realm of elections is too often grounded in anecdotes and opinions, rather than in good data and scientific research. To remedy this, The Measure of American Elections brings together a dozen leading scholars to examine the performance of elections across the United States, using a data-driven perspective. This book represents a transformation in debates about election reform, away from partisan and ideological posturing, toward using scientific analysis to evaluate the conduct of contemporary elections. The authors harness the power of newly available data to document all aspects of election administration, ranging from the registration of voters to the counting of ballots. They demonstrate what can be learned from giving serious attention to data, measurement, and objective analysis of American elections.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Polling place accessibility; Polling place hours; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Polling places; Provisional ballots; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities; Voting technology

Combine With: Costs; Errors; Public opinion; Turnout; Voter confidence


Kevin Coleman
Congressional Research Service (CRS)
National
21 page(s)
10/4/2012

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Internet voting; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Security; Voter information & outreach; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Errors; Turnout


Paul Gronke
Early Voting Information Center, Reed College
National
5 page(s)
6/17/2013

Abstract: There are three separate sources of information on the early vote. The good news is that the sources correlate highly, both across states and over time. The bad news is there is a persistent gap on the low-end, using the Current Population Survey’s Voting and Registration Supplement (VRS) and on the high end using data drawn from the Associated Press’s Election Services Unit.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Evaluation & assessment; Voting methods

Combine With: Turnout


Elaine Ginnold; Elizabeth Bergman
Annual Conference of the Western Political Science Association; Marin County Registrar of Voters
National; California; Wisconsin
27 page(s)
3/20/2014

Abstract: In this paper, we examine the impact of previously unexamined factors on citizens with disabilities and their likelihood to vote; whether they face obstacles to voting, and if so, the type and nature of those obstacles. We also explore preferences for casting a ballot among people with disabilities, as well as perceptions about current and future methods of voting. Using original survey data gathered utilizing a blended sampling methodology, we find that the mode of voting is a more significant explicator of turnout than disability.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Polling place accessibility; Polling places; Voter demographics; Voters with disabilities; Voting methods; Voting technology

Combine With: Turnout


John Klemanski; Roger Larocca
State Politics & Policy Quarterly
National
25 page(s)
3/1/2011

Abstract: We explore the effects of state-level election reforms on voter turnout in the 2000, 2004, and 2008 presidential elections. Using a cost-benefit model of political participation, we develop a framework for analyzing the burdens imposed by the following: universal mail voting, permanent no-excuse absentee voting, nonpermanent no-excuse absentee voting, early in-person voting, Election Day registration, and voter identification requirements. We analyze turnout data from the 2000, 2004, and 2008 Current Population Surveys and show that implementation by states of both forms of no-excuse absentee voting and Election Day registration has a positive and significant affect on turnout in each election. We find positive but less consistent effects on turnout for universal mail voting and voter identification requirements. Our results also show that early in-person voting has a negative and statistically significant correlation with turnout in all three elections.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Permanent absentee voting; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter ID

Combine With: Turnout


Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission); U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
143 page(s)
8/25/2010

Abstract: No abstract available.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Military voters; Overseas voters; Post-election audits; Security; Software-based systems; Voter demographics; Voting methods

Combine With: Errors; Fraud


Donetta Davidson; Gineen Bresso Beach
U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
National
95 page(s)
10/1/2011

Abstract: EAC’s EAVS remains one of the primary tools by which Congress, Federal agencies, and the public can monitor compliance with UOCAVA. Among the highlights of the 2010 survey findings are: 1. States transmitted 611,058 ballots to UOCAVA-covered voters for the 2010 election, with just over half (54.9 percent) going to uniformed services members. Another 39.5 percent went to civilian citizens living overseas. 2. Of the ballots transmitted, 34.7 percent (211,749) were returned and submitted for counting by military and overseas voters. 3. States reported counting 197,390 UOCAVA ballots, or 93.2 percent of the total submitted for counting. 4. States reported rejecting 14,824 ballots. The most common reason given for rejecting a UOCAVA ballot was that the ballot was not received on time or missed a deadline; States reported that 32.4 percent of rejected ballots were rejected for this reason. 5. States reported that 4,294 voters submitted a Federal Write-in Absentee Ballot (FWAB).

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Military voters; Overseas voters; Voter information & outreach; Voting methods; Voting technology

Combine With: Errors; Public opinion; Turnout


William Jenkins, Jr.
U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)
National
71 page(s)
1/1/2012

Abstract: The committees on appropriations directed GAO to study and report on costs and benefits of implementing H.R. 254—the Weekend Voting Act—including issues associated with conducting a weekend election. Specifically, this report addresses: (1) alternatives to voting on Tuesday that states provided for the November 2010 general election, (2) how election officials anticipate election administration and costs would be affected if the day for federal elections were moved to a weekend, and (3) what research and available data suggest about the potential effect of a weekend election on voter turnout.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election scheduling & rescheduling; Poll worker recruitment; Polling place locations; Polling place management; Voter demographics; Voting technology; Weekend voting

Combine With: Costs; Public opinion; Turnout


Republican National Lawyers Association
National
8 page(s)
11/1/2011

Abstract: The RNLA conducted a limited survey to indicate whether vote fraud charges have been filed in states across the country since 2000. We looked for at least one example in each state.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Voter ID; Voter registration

Combine With: Fraud


Kyle Ueyama; Sean Greene
The Pew Charitable Trusts
National; Colorado; Oregon; Washington
2 page(s)
4/29/2015

Abstract: This article details the increased use of vote-by-mail practices in United States elections.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Voting methods

Combine With: Turnout


Charles Stewart III; Inés Levin; R. Michael Alvarez; Thad Hall
Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy
National
15 page(s)
6/1/2011

Abstract: We study public opinions about convenience voting reforms, using a unique state-by-state survey conducted in the 2008 presidential election. Our analysis of the American voting public’s support for convenience voting reforms provides a variety of important insights into the potential direction of innovations in the electoral process in the near future. First, we find that the most prominent convenience voting reforms have mixed support. These include attitudes toward automatic voter registration, Election Day voter registration, and moving Election Day to a weekend. These reforms do not have majority support among all voters nationwide, but some enjoy majority support within some states. Second, we find that Internet voting and voting by mail do not receive a great deal of support from American voters. There is no state in which a majority of voters supports Internet voting, nor are there states where expanded vote-by-mail has majority support (other than states which have already implemented these reforms). Finally, we find that an overwhelming majority of Americans support requiring showing photo identification and a bare majority support making Election Day a holiday. Support for reform is highly correlated with political affiliations and attitudes, and especially correlated with support for Barack Obama.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Internet voting; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter ID; Voter registration; Voting methods; Weekend voting

Combine With: Public opinion


Sarah Crissey; Thom File
U.S. Census Bureau; U.S. Department of Commerce
National
20 page(s)
7/1/2012

Abstract: This report examines levels of voting and registration in the November 2008 presidential election, the characteristics of citizens who reported either register­ing or voting in the election, and the reasons why some registered individuals did not vote.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Asian-American voters; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day polling place voting; Hispanic voters; Low-income voters; Senior voters; Voter demographics; Voter registration; Voting methods; Women voters; Youth voters

Combine With: Errors


Greg Vonnahme; Robert Stein
Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy
National
10 page(s)
2011

Abstract: Where, when and how we vote has garnered only modest scholarly attention. Moreover, until recently (Cemenska, Leighley, Nagler & Tokaji, 2009) little was known about the variety of places, times and procedures Americans use to cast their ballots. This brief essay is intended to serve as a primer on non-precinct voting and a guide for future research on this mode of voting.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Early/Advance in-person voting; Permanent absentee voting; Vote centers

Combine With: Costs; Turnout


Paul Gronke; Peter Miller
American Politics Research
National; Oregon
27 page(s)
2012

Abstract: In the most widely cited result on the turnout effects of voting by mail, Southwell and Burchett report that Oregon’s system increased turnout by 10 percentage points. We attempt to replicate this finding and extend the analysis to additional years to test whether the originally reported effect is due to the novelty of the first three voting by mail elections in 1995 and 1996. We are unable to reproduce earlier findings, either via replication or extending the time series to include 2010 electoral data. We find evidence for a novelty effect when all elections between 1960 and 2010 are included in our analysis, and a consistent impact of voting by mail on turnout only in special elections.

Subject(s): All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail

Combine With: Turnout


Donald Inbody
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
12 page(s)
6/1/2013

Abstract: Return of the marked ballot is the real problem that requires further work to enhance the convenience and speed. Many ballots returned from overseas or military voters are rejected for late arrival, lack of signature, or other administrative errors. Anecdotal evidence indicates that voters using the electronically provided blank ballot are often confused by the instructions. Local election officials report receiving returned ballots in various non-standard forms. Ballots returned in such condition increase the likelihood of error in transcribing the ballot for submission for counting. A related problem that has not been solved is how best to instruct overseas and military voters how to process the ballot and return it properly to the appropriate election jurisdiction in a timely manner. Additionally, the exceptionally low turnout rate by overseas voters is a problem that will likely require study beyond this report.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Internet voting; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Vote counting & recounting; Voter demographics; Voter education campaigns; Voter information & outreach; Voter registration; Youth voters

Combine With: Errors; Turnout


Paul Freedman; Richard Bonnie; Thomas Guterbock
Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy
National
12 page(s)
9/3/2013

Abstract: This article investigates voting among residents of nursing homes and assisted living facilities. We conducted a survey of Virginia long-term care facilities focused on voting in the 2006 midterm elections. The study reveals, first, that there are systematic differences in the voting experience of senior citizens who reside in nursing homes as compared with assisted living facilities. Second, we find considerable variance in how much attention is given to registration and voting by both types of long-term care facilities and in how much help residents receive to enable them to vote. Third and most important, facility policies and practices designed to facilitate registration and voting appear to increase voter turnout. Finally, it appears that many long-term care facilities may be disenfranchising residents who want to vote by incorrectly assuming that they lack the necessary capacity to do so. Overall, the study suggests that many seniors in long-term care facilities who are eligible to vote do not have a meaningful opportunity to do so.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Senior voters; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Turnout


Claire Smith; Judith Ann Murray
Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association
National
30 page(s)
8/1/2013

Abstract: We adapt the variables used in traditional voter studies to create hypotheses about the impact of public policy and the absentee voting process. We use data from the Overseas Vote Foundation 2012 Post-Election Voter Survey and U.S. Vote Foundation 2012 Post Election Voter surveys, as well as balloting statistics from the Election Assistance Commission (EAC) to test the hypotheses. Differences in domestic and overseas absentee balloting are considered and, based on these results, recommendations to improve the administration of both domestic and overseas and military absentee balloting are presented.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Military voters; Overseas voters; Vote counting & recounting; Voter demographics; Voter registration; Voting technology

Combine With: Errors; Turnout; Voter confidence; Wait times


Lawrence Norden; Wendy Weiser
Brennan Center for Justice, New York University School of Law
National; Florida; Wisconsin
64 page(s)
10/3/2011

Abstract: This study is the first comprehensive roundup of all state legislative action thus far in 2011 on voting rights, focusing on new laws as well as state legislation that has not yet passed or that failed. This snapshot may soon be incomplete: the second halves of some state legislative sessions have begun.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Proof of citizenship requirement; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter ID; Voter registration; Voter registration drives; Voters with felony convictions; Voting methods; Youth voters

Combine With: Costs


Brennan Center for Justice, New York University School of Law
National
4 page(s)
1/21/2014

Abstract: This January saw two bipartisan, breakthrough efforts to modernize elections, both of which President Obama highlighted in his State of the Union address. The bipartisan Presidential Commission on Election Administration released a widely-praised set of recommendations to fix many of the problems persistently plaguing our system. And Republicans and Democrats in Congress introduced a bill to strengthen the Voting Rights Act, in response to the Supreme Court’s decision gutting the heart of the Act last summer. This movement is continuing in the states, where lawmakers in most states have introduced scores of bills to expand voting access. The trend marks a shift from before the 2012 election, when 41 states introduced 180 restrictive voting bills, with 19 states ultimately passing 27 measures.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Military voters; Online voter registration; Portable registration; Preregistration for teens; Proof of citizenship requirement; Same day/Election Day registration; Voter ID; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voters with felony convictions; Youth voters

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Wait times


Rock the Vote
National
22 page(s)
6/1/2011

Abstract: According to the U.S. Census, only 58.5 percent of 18 to 24 year olds and 66.4 percent of 25 to 34 year olds were registered to vote in 2008, the lowest rates of registration among all age groups. Unfortunately, too many young Americans are left out of the process because of outdated voter registration practices, barriers encountered when trying to cast a ballot, and our country’s failure to adequately prepare them for active citizenship. It doesn’t have to be this way. A 21st century voting system that makes it easier for this rising electorate to register to vote and removes barriers to the ballot box is not just possible today, it is necessary.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; All-mail elections/Vote-by-mail; Civic education; Early/Advance in-person voting; Military voters; Online voter registration; Overseas voters; Portable registration; Preregistration for teens; Same day/Election Day registration; Universal registration; Voter ID; Voter registration drives; Youth voters


Charles Stewart III; Jonathan Katz; R. Michael Alvarez; Ronald Rivest; Stephen Ansolabehere; Thad Hall
Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project (VTP)
National
84 page(s)
10/18/2012

Abstract: In this report, we examine how voting technologies and election administration in the United States have changed—or have not changed—since the controversial 2000 presidential election. We present our research and analyses of the past 12 years, as well as the perspectives of a number of individuals prominent in the election administration, voting technology, and election advocacy communities. Based on our research reported here, we provide the following recommendations for how we might improve the administration and technology of elections in the United States.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; Ballot design; Early/Advance in-person voting; Polling places; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voting technology


Charles Stewart III; Stephen Ansolabehere
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (Bauer-Ginsberg Commission)
National
25 page(s)
6/28/2013

Abstract: The purpose of this white paper is to lay the groundwork with some evidence about where long lines occur and what is thought to cause them.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Administrators, poll workers & poll watchers; African-American voters; Ballot length; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Early/Advance in-person voting; Election Day holiday; Election Day polling place voting; Electronic pollbooks; Hispanic voters; Low-income voters; Paper ballots; Polling place locations; Polling places; Voter demographics; Voter information & outreach

Combine With: Costs; Voter confidence; Wait times


Charles Stewart III
Bush v. Gore, 10 Years Later: Election Administration in the United States
National; Florida
62 page(s)
4/7/2011

Abstract: After discussing how two major reform processes digested the election problems that were presented to them, I turn to the evidence about how HAVA made a difference in how elections are run in the United States. I first examine the evidence — to the degree it exists — about the improvement of election administration along four domains that were clearly addressed in HAVA — voting machine accuracy, voter registration quality, access to voting by the disabled, and election fraud. I then examine two important unintended consequences of HAVA, namely the controversies over electronic voting and the movement to require photo identification at the polls. The conclusion provides an overall assessment of the achievements of HAVA while at the same time questioning HAVA’s continued relevance, in light of the rise of absentee voting, attacks on the Election Assistance Commission’s existence, and the current climate of fiscal austerity.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Accessibility & usability; Direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machines; Optical scan voting machines; Provisional ballots; Recounts; Voter ID; Voter list maintenance; Voter registration; Voters with disabilities; Voters with felony convictions

Combine With: Errors; Fraud; Public opinion; Voter confidence


Estelle Rogers; Steven Carbó
Demos
National
4 page(s)
7/15/2013

Abstract: Early voting provides a means for eligible voters to cast their ballots at a time and location other than in person on Election Day.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; African-American voters; Early/Advance in-person voting; Hispanic voters

Combine With: Costs; Turnout; Wait times


Richard Hasen
The Federal Lawyer
National
20 page(s)
6/1/2012

Abstract: In this brief Article, forthcoming in the Federal Bar Association’s magazine, the Federal Lawyer, I aim to do three things. First I canvass the nature of election law disputes which are likely to come to federal courts in the 2012 election season, focusing on constitutional questions arising from the interaction of state and federal courts in this area. Second, I discuss timing strategies which federal courts can and should use to avoid conflicts with state courts and to avoid becoming further enmeshed in the political thicket. Third, and most controversially, I suggest that federal courts be aware in evaluating election law disputes of the potential for subconscious bias on the part of election administrators, state courts, and federal judges themselves.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Provisional ballots; Punch cards; Voter list maintenance

Combine With: Disenfranchisement; Litigation


Daniel Biggers; Michael Hanmer
State Politics & Policy Conference
National
18 page(s)
2/11/2015

Abstract: Recent elections have witnessed substantial debate regarding the degree to which state governments facilitate access to the polls. Despite this newfound interest, however, many of the major reforms aimed at increasing voting convenience (i.e., early voting and no-excuse absentee voting) were implemented over the past four decades. Although numerous studies examine their consequences (on turnout, the composition of the electorate, and/or electoral outcomes), we know significantly less about the factors leading to the initial adoption of these policies. We attempt to provide insights into such motivations using event history analysis to identify the impact of political and demographic considerations, as well as diffusion mechanisms, on which states opted for easier ballot access. We find that adoption responded to some factors signaling the necessity of greater voting convenience in the state, and that partisanship influenced the enactment of early voting but not no-excuse absentee voting procedures.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Early/Advance in-person voting; Voting methods

Combine With: Turnout


Hans von Spakovsky; John Fund
Encounter Books
National
250 page(s)
8/14/2012

Abstract: Who’s Counting? exposes serious problems with our election system, from voter fraud to a slipshod system of vote counting that political scientist Walter Dean Burnham calls “the most careless of the developed world.” To reduce fraud, states ranging from Florida to Wisconsin have passed laws requiring a photo ID be shown at the polls and curbing the unrestrained use of absentee ballots. The response from Obama allies has been to belittle the need for such laws and to attack them as a rising racist tide in American life.

Subject(s): Absentee voting; Security; Vote counting & recounting; Voter ID

Combine With: Errors; Fraud